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Monday, 25 October, 2021

Trump Up Meaning

author
David Lawrence
• Sunday, 01 November, 2020
• 24 min read

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. To conceive, concoct, or devise some idea or piece of information in a fraudulent and self-serving manner.

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Contents

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs. This expression, first recorded in 1695, uses trump in the sense of “devise fraudulently,” a usage otherwise obsolete.

The American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Hammer. Copyright © 2003, 1997 by The Christine Hammer 1992 Trust.

v. To devise something fraudulently: The corrupt cop trumped-up a charge of conspiracy against the people under arrest. The American Heritage Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs.

Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. They trumped-up the movie so much that many people were disappointed when it finally came out.

They put Larry in the slammer on some trumped-up charge. McGraw-Hill's Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Copyright © 2010 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. To get the better of (an adversary or competitor, for example) by using a crucial, often hidden resource.

© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © Harper Collins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007 CNN reported Friday that an article of impeachment is being circulated in the House that accuses the president of incitement of insurrection.

Asked if he would vote to impeach the president, Cole, who had not seen the draft article, said Friday, “I’m going to wait and see … Again, I just don’t think it’s in the country’s interest. In a letter to Democratic lawmakers on Friday, Pelosi said there was “growing momentum” around invoking the 25th Amendment, and she said Republicans in Congress should call on Trump to leave office.

Pelosi told her colleagues that she and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Miller had discussed “available precautions for preventing an unstable president from initiating military hostilities or accessing the launch codes and ordering a nuclear strike. Related Photos Rep. Tom Cole Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington.

As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)People arrive at the Capitol in Olympia, Wash., Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, before the start of a protest rally against the counting of electoral votes in Washington, DC, affirming President-elect Joe Biden's victory.

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(AP Photo/Ted S. Warren)A man carries a U.S. flag attached to a baseball bat as he waits at the Capitol in Olympia, Wash., Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, before the start of a protest rally against the counting of electoral votes in Washington, DC, affirming President-elect Joe Biden's victory. (AP Photo/Ted S. Warren)Rep. Jim Jordan, R-Ohio, speaks to colleagues as a joint session of the House and Senate convenes to confirm the Electoral College votes cast in November's election, at the Capitol in Washington, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021.

As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud.

(Erin Chaff/The New York Times via AP, Pool) Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington. As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud.

(AP Photo/Manuel Bale Center) Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington. As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud.

As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud.

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Demonstrators supporting President Donald Trump are gathering in various parts of Southern California as Congress debates to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's electoral college victory. Demonstrators, supporting President Donald Trump, are gathering in various parts of Southern California as Congress debates to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's electoral victory.

(AP Photo/Mario Jose Sanchez)Supporters of President Donald Trump attend a rally outside the Kansas Statehouse, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Topeka, Kan. (Evert Nelson/The Topeka Capital-Journal via AP)U.S. Capitol Police hold protesters at gun-point near the House Chamber inside the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud.

(AP Photo/John Mitchell)Rep. Ruben Gallegos, D-Ariz., stands on a chair as lawmakers prepare to evacuate the floor as protesters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (Greg Nash/Pool via AP)Supporters of President Donald Trump climb the West wall of the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington.

As Congress prepares to affirm President-elect Joe Biden's victory, thousands of people have gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. (AP Photo/Jose Luis Magaña) Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington.

Whataboutism, also known as whataboutery, is a variant of the TU quote logical fallacy that attempts to discredit an opponent's position by charging them with hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving their argument. According to Russian writer, chess grand master and political activist Garry Kasparov, it is a word that was coined to describe the frequent use of a rhetorical diversion by Soviet apologists and dictators, who would counter charges of their oppression, “massacres, gulags, and forced deportations” by invoking American slavery, racism, lynchings, etc.

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According to lexicographer Ben Zimmer , the term whataboutery appeared several years before whataboutism with a similar meaning. He cites a 1974 letter by Sean O'Conrail which was published in The Irish Times and which referred to “the Whereabouts ... who answer every condemnation of the Provisional I.R.A.

With an argument to prove the greater immorality of the 'enemy'” and an opinion column entitled 'Enter the cultural British Army' by 'Backbenches' (Irish Journalists John Heavy) in the same paper which picked up the theme using the term “whataboutery”. With an argument to prove the greater immorality of the “enemy”, and therefore the justice of the Provisional’ cause: “What about Bloody Sunday, internment, torture, force-feeding, army intimidation?”.

What about Papal sanction for the Norman invasion; condemnation of the Fenian's by Moriarty; Parnell?” Heavy appears to coin the term whataboutery in his response to this letter: “As a correspondent noted in a recent letter to this paper, we are very big on What about Morality, matching one historic injustice with another justified injustice.

“Whataboutism” was the title of an article in The Economist on 31 January 2008, where Lucas wrote: “Soviet propagandists during the Cold War were trained in a tactic that their western interlocutors nicknamed 'whataboutism'”. Ivan Tsvetkov, associate professor of International Relations in St Petersburg, dates the practice of whataboutism back to 1950 with the lynching of blacks argument, but he also credits Lucas for the recent popularity of the term.

The terse Soviet announcement of the Chernobyl accident was followed by a Tass dispatch noting that there had been many mishaps in the United States, ranging from Three Mile Island outside Harrisburg, Pa., to the Gonna plant near Rochester. Tass said an American antinuclear group registered 2,300 accidents, breakdowns and other faults in 1979.

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The technique functions as a diversionary tactic to distract the opponent from their original criticism. Thus, the technique is used to avoid directly refuting or disproving the opponent's initial argument.

The Economist recommended two methods of properly countering whataboutism: to “use points made by Russian leaders themselves” so that they cannot be applied to the West, and for Western nations to engage in more self-criticism of their own media and government. Euromaidan Press discussed the strategy in a feature on whataboutism, the second in a three-part educational series on Russian propaganda.

The piece advised subjects of whataboutism to resist emotional manipulation and the temptation to respond. The technique became increasingly prevalent in Soviet public relations, until it became a habitual practice by the government.

Soviet media employing whataboutism, hoping to tarnish the reputation of the US, did so at the expense of journalistic neutrality. Ilya Ehrenburg's response in Pravda criticized the United States' laws and policies on race and minorities, writing that the Soviet Union deemed them “insulting to human dignity” but did not use them as a pretext for war.

Whataboutism saw greater usage in Soviet public relations during the Cold War. Russian public relations strategies combined whataboutism with other Soviet tactics, including disinformation and active measures.

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Although the use of whataboutism was not restricted to any particular race or belief system, according to The Economist, Russians often overused the tactic. The Russian government's use of whataboutism grew under the leadership of Vladimir Putin.

Business Insider echoed this assessment, writing that “Putin's near-default response to criticism of how he runs Russia is whataboutism”. Writer Miriam Elder commented in The Guardian that Putin's spokesman, Dmitry Peso, used the tactic; she added that most criticisms of human rights violations had gone unanswered.

Peso used the whataboutism tactic the same year in a letter written to the Financial Times. Increased use after the Russian annexation of Crimea Donald Trump US President Donald Trump has used whataboutism in response to criticism leveled at him, his policies, or his support of controversial world leaders.

Garry Kasparov commented to Columbia Journalism Review on Trump's use of whataboutism: “Moral relativism, 'whataboutism', has always been a favorite weapon of illiberal regimes. The term “whataboutery” has been used by Loyalists and Republicans since the period of the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

The tactic was employed by Azerbaijan, which responded to criticism of its human rights record by holding parliamentary hearings on issues in the United States. Simultaneously, pro-Azerbaijan Internet trolls used whataboutism to draw attention away from criticism of the country.

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According to The Washington Post, “In what amounts to an official document of whataboutism, the Turkish statement listed a roster of supposed transgressions by various governments now scolding Turkey for its dramatic purge of state institutions and civil society in the wake of a failed coup attempt in July.” Hesameddin Athena, a top adviser to Iranian President Hassan Routeing, tweeted about the George Floyd protests : “The brave American people have the right to protest against the ongoing terror inflicted on minorities, the poor, and the disenfranchised.

In response to tweets from Donald Trump's administration criticizing the Chinese government's mistreatment of ethnic minorities and the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong, Chinese Foreign Ministry officials began using Twitter to point out racial inequalities and social unrest in the United States which led Politico to accuse China of engaging in whataboutism. Whataboutery, as practiced by both parties in The Troubles in Northern Ireland to highlight what the other side had done to them, was “one of the commonest forms of evasion of personal moral responsibility,” according to Bishop (later Cardinal) Canal Day.

In 2017, The New Yorker described the tactic as “a strategy of false moral equivalences”, and Clarence Page called the technique “a form of logical jujitsu”. Michael J. Follow of Israel Policy Forum wrote that the usage of whataboutism had become a crisis; concluding that the tactic did not yield any benefits, Follow charged that “whataboutism from either the right or the left only leads to a black hole of angry recriminations from which nothing will escape”.

In his book The New Cold War (2008), Edward Lucas characterized whataboutism as “the favorite weapon of Soviet propagandists”. Writing in The National Interest in 2013, Samuel Charge was critical of the tactic, commenting, “Russian policymakers, meanwhile, gain little from petulant bouts of 'whataboutism'”.

National security journalist Julia Off commented in a 2014 article, “Anyone who has ever studied the Soviet Union knows about a phenomenon called 'whataboutism'.” Off cited the Soviet response to criticism, And you are lynching Afro-Americans “, as a “classic” form of whataboutism.

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In their book The European Union and Russia (2016), Forster and Hakka characterized whataboutism as an “old Soviet practice”, and they observed that the strategy “has been gaining in prominence in the Russian attempts at deflecting Western criticism”. In her book, Security Threats and Public Perception, author Elizabeth Kaufman called the whataboutism technique “A Soviet/Russian spin on liberal anti-Americanism”, comparing it to the Soviet rejoinder, “And you are lynching Afro-Americans”.

In 2016, Canadian columnist Terry Gavin asserted in the Ottawa Citizen that Norm Chomsky used the tactic in an October 2001 speech, delivered after the September 11 attacks, that was critical of US foreign policy. Daphne Skilled discussed the tactic in her book, Freedom of Speech in Russia, identifying it as a “Soviet propagandist's technique” and “a common Soviet-era defense”.

In a piece for CNN, Jill Dougherty compared the technique to the pot calling the kettle black. Russian journalist Alexey Oval told Global Post in 2017 that the tactic was “an old Soviet trick”.

, called whataboutism “a form of moral relativism that responds to criticism with the simple response: 'But you do it too'”. Conrad echoed Kaufman's comparison of the tactic to the Soviet response, “Over there they lynch Afro-Americans”.

Foreign Policy wrote that Russian whataboutism was “part of the national psyche”. Writing for The Washington Post, former United States Ambassador to Russia, Michael McCaul wrote critically of Trump's use of the tactic and compared him to Putin.

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McCaul commented, “That's exactly the kind of argument that Russian propagandists have used for years to justify some of Putin's most brutal policies.” Los Angeles Times contributor Matt Welch classed the tactic among “six categories of Trump apologetics”.

Christian Christensen, Professor of Journalism in Stockholm, argues that the accusation of whataboutism is itself a form of the TU quote fallacy, as it dismisses criticisms of one's own behavior to focus instead on the actions of another, thus creating a double standard. Others have criticized the usage of accusations of whataboutism by American news outlets, arguing that accusations of whataboutism have been used to simply deflect criticisms of human rights abuses perpetrated by the United States or its allies.

“Whataboutism” is another name for the logical fallacy of “TU quote” (Latin for “you also”), in which an accusation is met with a counter-accusation, pivoting away from the original criticism. The strategy has been a hallmark of Soviet and post-Soviet propaganda, and some commentators have accused President Donald Trump of mimicking Mr. Putin's use of the technique.

This age-old technique, dubbed 'whataboutism', is in essence an appeal to hypocrisy; its only purpose is to discredit the opponent, not to refute the original argument. Soviet propagandists during the Cold War were trained in a tactic that their western interlocutors nicknamed 'whataboutism'.

Any criticism of the Soviet Union's internal aggression or external repression was met with a 'what about?' It aimed to portray the West as so morally flawed that its criticism of the Soviet empire was hypocritical.

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Any criticism of the Soviet Union's internal repression or external aggression was met by asking 'what about' some crime of the West, from slavery to the Monroe doctrine. In the era when political prisoners rotted in Siberia and you could be shot for trying to leave the socialist paradise, whataboutism was little more than a debating tactic.

Most people inside the Soviet Union, particularly towards the end, knew that their system was based on lies and murder. The term was popularized by articles in 2007 and 2008 by Edward Lucas, senior editor at the Economist.

'The now sacred Russian tactic of “whataboutism” started with civil rights,' Ms. Off wrote. ' ^ Off, Julia (14 August 2014), “Ferguson Will Make It Harder for America to Set a Good Example Abroad”, The New Republic, retrieved 4 July 2017, The now sacred Russian tactic of 'whataboutism' started with civil rights: Whenever the U.S. pointed to Soviet human rights violations, the Soviets had an easy riposte.

^ Dougherty, Jill (24 July 2016), “Olympic doping ban unleashes fury in Moscow”, CNN, retrieved 4 July 2017, There's another attitude ... that many Russians seem to share, what used to be called in the Soviet Union 'whataboutism', in other words, 'who are you to call the kettle black?' ^ Moynihan, Michael (9 March 2014), “How to Justify Russian Aggression”, The Daily Beast, retrieved 5 July 2017, whataboutism, the debate tactic demanding that questions about morally indefensible acts committed by your side be deflected with pettifogging discussion of unrelated sins committed by your opponent's side.

Part 2: Whataboutism (video), YouTube, Euromaidan Press, retrieved 3 July 2017 ^ “Why the what-about-ism?” , The Economist, Democracy in America: American politics, 20 March 2017, retrieved 4 July 2017, One of the most trusted Soviet techniques during the Cold War came to be known in the West as 'what-about-ism'.

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Faced with an accusation, for example that the Soviet Union worked political dissidents to death in prison camps, the propagandist would respond: well, what about those black men being forced to work on chain gangs in the South? This was effective, because by the time anyone had explained that the two are not, in fact, morally equivalent, the technique had done its work, changing the subject away from the gulag.

... it allows the Kremlin a moment of whataboutism, a favorite, Soviet-era appeal to hypocrisy: Russia is not that bad, you see, because other countries have also committed various misdeeds, and what about those? ^ AOL, Mustafa (7 March 2017), “How Germany accidentally gave Erdoan a boost ahead of key vote”, Al-Monitor, retrieved 3 July 2017, 'Whataboutism'.

This was a term originally coined to describe Soviet propaganda during the Cold War about the 'real democracy' in the USSR and the hypocrisy in the West. ^ Taylor, Adam (12 April 2017), “How the Russian Embassy in London uses Twitter to undermine the West”, The Washington Post, retrieved 3 July 2017 ^ Weiss, Michael (4 November 2016), “Russian Dressing: When Donald Trump Was More Anti-NATO Than Vladimir Putin”, The Daily Beast, retrieved 3 July 2017, In stark contrast with his predecessors for high office, he also regularly traffics in 'whataboutism', a Soviet-honed method of changing the conversation.

^ Garner, Rob (18 December 2015), “Donald Trump's New Role: Apologist for Vladimir Putin”, The Fiscal Times, retrieved 3 July 2017, In the depths of the Cold War, when the U.S. and the Soviet Union were locked in a global battle of ideas about how governments should treat their people and what political forms were best at delivering peace and prosperity, a particular style of argument became popular and was given the ironic name, 'whataboutism'. ... During the Cold War, whataboutism was generally the province of Soviet spokesmen and their defenders in the West.

^ a b c Domains, Mark (5 April 2015), “U.S. Should Think Twice Before Criticizing Russia”, The Moscow Times, retrieved 3 July 2017, Whataboutism's efficacy decreased for a certain period of time, in no small part because many of the richest targets (like the Jim Crow racial segregation laws) were reformed out of existence, but it has made something of a rebound over the past few years. Off, Julia (1 June 2012), “Russia's Syrian Excuse”, The New Yorker, retrieved 3 July 2017, This posture is a defense tactic, the Kremlin's way of adapting to a new post-Cold War geopolitical reality.

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, Commentary, retrieved 5 July 2017, This is another throwback to the Cold War, and one Putin himself is fond of, called 'Whataboutism'. The essence of Whataboutism is to turn any complaint about Russia into an accusation that whatever it might be doing, the West is doing and has done worse.

Ploy”, The Wall Street Journal, retrieved 3 July 2017, In his interview with NBC's Megan Kelly on Sunday, Russian President Vladimir Putin employed the tried-and-true tactic of 'whataboutism'. ^ Weiss, Michael (4 November 2016), “When Donald Trump Was More Anti-NATO Than Vladimir Putin”, The Daily Beast, retrieved 5 July 2017, In stark contrast with his predecessors for high office, he also regularly traffics in 'whataboutism', a Soviet-honed method of changing the conversation.

^ Gaulle, ARPU (22 November 2016), “In the crosshairs of Azerbaijan's patriotic trolls”, Open Democracy, retrieved 4 July 2017, Whataboutism is the most popular tactic against foreign critics; 'how dare you criticize Azerbaijan, get your own house in order!' ^ Harbor, Ishaan (6 December 2016), “Turkey condemns state of press freedom in Europe and the US”, The Washington Post, retrieved 5 July 2017, In what amounts to an official document of whataboutism, the Turkish statement listed a roster of supposed transgressions by various governments now scolding Turkey for its dramatic purge of state institutions and civil society in the wake of a failed coup attempt in July.

“Turkey condemns state of press freedom in Europe and the U.S.” The Washington Post. ^ “FACT CHECK: Why Israeli UN Envoy's Speech on Jerusalem Missed the Mark”.

^ Mazda, Ed (14 June 2017), “MSNBC's Chuck Todd Calls Out Partisan 'Toxic Stew' After Shooter Targets Congressmen”, The Huffington Post, retrieved 5 July 2017 ^ Todd, Chuck (14 June 2017), “Chuck Todd: The Media Has 'A Role To Play' In Calling Out Caustic Rhetoric”, Meet the Press, MSNBC, retrieved 5 July 2017 ^ Putz, Catherine (22 July 2016). Lessen, Sasha (18 February 2017), “In Praise of Hypocrisy”, The New York Times, retrieved 5 July 2017, This stance has breathed new life into the old Soviet propaganda tool of 'whataboutism', the trick of turning any argument against the opponent.

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, News OK, The Chicago Tribune, retrieved 4 July 2017, 'Whataboutism' is running rampant in the White House these days. It's a Cold War-era term for a form of logical jujitsu that helps you to win arguments by gently changing the subject.

It's a naked attempt to excuse your own wretched behavior by painting your opponent as a hypocrite. But in the fast-paced world of media manipulation, the Soviet leader could get away with it merely by appearing to be strong and firm in defense of his country.

^ Shapiro, Ben (31 May 2017), “Whataboutism and Misdirection: The Latest Tools of Dumb Political Combat”, National Review, retrieved 5 July 2017 ^ Follow, Michael J. The 'New Tsarist': What Makes Russia's Leaders Tick”, The New Cold War: Putin's Russia and the Threat to the West, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 144, ISBN 978-0230606128 ^ Kivirähk, Juan; Maliukeviius, Serious; Career, Alexander (2010), The 'Humanitarian Dimension' of Russian Foreign Policy Toward Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, and the Baltic States, Center for East European Policy Studies, pp.

^ Forster, Thomas; Hakka, Hi ski (2016), The European Union and Russia, The European Union Series, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 122, ISBN 978-1137355348 ^ Kaufman, Elizabeth (2016), “The USA as the Primary Threat to Russia”, Security Threats and Public Perception: Digital Russia and the Ukraine Crisis, New Security Challenges, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 91, ISBN 978-3319432007 ^ Palmer, James (9 November 2016), “China Just Won The U.S. Election”, Foreign Policy, retrieved 5 July 2017, the old Soviet whataboutism whenever they were challenged on the gulag: 'But in America, you lynch Afro-Americans.' ^ Reveille, David (24 January 2017), “Russian journalist has advice for Americans covering Trump ", USA Today, Global Post, retrieved 3 July 2017 ^ a b Conrad, Peter (2017), “21.

, Foreign Policy, retrieved 5 July 2017, In a country where 'whataboutism' is part of the national psyche, Russia was quick to point to Washington's alleged failures after the strike in Syria. Tu quote is a subset of the so-called ad hominem argument: a strike against the character, not the position, of one’s opponent.

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(Source: madworldnews.com)

Ad hominem gets a bad press, but it isn’t without merit, when used in good faith. It doesn’t win the day, but it chips away at your opponent’s moral standing and raises doubt about the entirety of his or her position.

The US, a country based on a free-market capitalist ideology, has done many horrible things: the enslavement of millions of Africans, the genocidal eradication of the Native Americans, the brutal military actions taken to support pro-Western dictatorships, just to name a few. The British Empire likewise had a great deal of blood on its hands: we might merely mention the internment camps during the second Boer War and the Bengal famine.

This is not mere ‘whataboutism’, because the same intermediate premise necessary to make their anti-communist argument now works against capitalism: Historical point: the US and the UK were based on a capitalist ideology, and did many horrible things. Asiatic, Axel Arturo Marcelo, Whataboutism Defended, Academia.edu, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Department of Philosophy, retrieved 5 July 2017 Ducey, Lauren (7 April 2017).

Part 2: Whataboutism (video), YouTube, Euromaidan Press, retrieved 3 July 2017 CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) Off, Julia (10 February 2017), “Oh, How This Feels Like Moscow”, Slate (audio), retrieved 5 July 2017, Off and Elder explain 'whataboutism' and other vocabulary lessons from their time reporting in Moscow.

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