The Detroit Post
Monday, 18 October, 2021

Trump Impeachment

author
Paul Gonzalez
• Monday, 04 January, 2021
• 47 min read

In November, the House Intelligence Committee held a number of public hearings in which witnesses testified publicly; on December 3, the committee voted 13–9 along party lines to adopt a final report. A set of impeachment hearings before the House Judiciary Committee began on December 4; on December 13, it voted 23–17 along party lines to recommend two articles of impeachment, for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.

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(Source: qz.com)

Contents

The committee released a lengthy report on the impeachment articles on December 16. Two days later, the full House approved both articles in a mostly party-line vote, with all Republicans opposing along with three Democrats.

The articles were submitted to the Senate on January 16, 2021, initiating the trial. The trial saw no witnesses or documents being subpoenaed, as Republican senators rejected attempts to introduce subpoenas on January 21 while arranging for trial procedures, and then on January 31 after a debate.

On Article II, obstruction of Congress, 47 senators voted for conviction, while 53 senators voted to acquit. Republican Mitt Romney, the only senator to break party lines, became the first U.S. senator to vote to convict a president of his own party in an impeachment trial, as he voted for conviction on abuse of power.

Two days after the acquittal, Ambassador Gordon Woodland and Lt. Col. Alexander Indian, who had both testified in the impeachment inquiry about the President's conduct, were fired. “Impeaching Donald John Trump, President of the United States, for high crimes and misdemeanors” by Congressman Brad Sherman Congress's first efforts to impeach Trump were initiated by Democratic representatives Al Green and Brad Sherman in 2017.

In December 2017, an impeachment resolution failed in the House with a 58–364 vote margin. Following the 2018 elections, the Democrats gained a majority in the House and launched multiple investigations into Trump's actions and finances.

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Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi initially resisted calls for impeachment. In May 2019, however, she indicated that Trump's continued actions, which she characterized as obstruction of justice and refusal to honor congressional subpoenas, might make an impeachment inquiry necessary.

Investigations into various scandals in the Trump administration which could lead to articles of impeachment were initiated by various house congressional committees, led by Nancy Pelosi, and began in February 2019. A formal impeachment investigation began in July 2019, and several subpoenas were issued; while most were honored, several were not.

Memorandum of the call between Trump and Zelensky released by the White House on September 25, 2019 Volodymyr Zelensky with Donald Trump in New York City on September 25, 2019The scandal reached public attention in mid-September 2019 after a whistleblower complaint made in August 2019.

The complaint raised concerns about Trump using presidential powers to solicit foreign electoral intervention in the 2020 U.S. presidential election. The Trump White House has corroborated several allegations raised by the whistleblower.

A non-verbatim transcript of the Trump –Zelensky call confirmed that Trump requested investigations into Joe Biden and his son Hunter, as well as a discredited conspiracy theory involving a Democratic National Committee server, while repeatedly urging Zelensky to work with Giuliani and Barr on these matters. The White House also confirmed that the record of the call had been transferred to a highly classified system.

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White House acting chief of staff Mick Juliana said one reason why Trump withheld military aid to Ukraine was Ukrainian “corruption related to the DNC server”, referring to a debunked theory that Ukrainians framed Russia for hacking into the DNC computer system. After the impeachment inquiry began, Trump publicly urged Ukraine and China to investigate the Biden's.

Bill Taylor, the Trump administration's top diplomat to Ukraine, testified that he was told that U.S. military aid to Ukraine and a Trump –Zelensky White House meeting were conditioned on Zelensky publicly announcing investigations into the Biden's and alleged Ukrainian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections. United States Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Woodland testified that he worked with Giuliani at Trump's “express direction” to arrange a quid pro quo with the Ukraine government.

In October 2019, three congressional committees (Intelligence, Oversight, and Foreign Affairs) deposed witnesses including Ambassador Taylor, Laura Cooper (the deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russian, Ukrainian and Eurasian affairs), and former White House official Fiona Hill. Witnesses testified that they believed that President Trump wanted Zelensky to publicly announce investigations into the Biden's and Burma (a Ukrainian natural gas company on whose board Hunter Biden had served) and 2016 election interference.

On October 8, in a letter from White House counsel Pat Cipollone to House speaker Pelosi, the White House officially responded that it would not cooperate with the investigation due to concerns including that there had not yet been a vote of the full House and that interviews of witnesses were being conducted behind closed doors. On October 17, Juliana said in response to a reporter's allegation of quid pro quo, “We do that all the time with foreign policy.

He walked back his comments later that day, asserting there had been “absolutely no quid pro quo and that Trump had withheld military aid to Ukraine over concerns of the country's corruption. On October 29, 2019, Massachusetts representative Jim McGovern introduced a resolution referred to House Rules Committee, which set forth the “format of open hearings in the House Intelligence Committee, including staff-led questioning of witnesses, and the public release of deposition transcripts”.

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This resolution, formally authorizing the impeachment inquiry, was approved by the House by a vote of 232 to 196 on October 31, 2019. In November 2019, the House Intelligence Committee held a number of public hearings in which witnesses testified publicly.

On November 13, Taylor and Kent testified publicly. Ambassador Marie Yovanovitch testified before the committee on November 15, 2019.

Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Indian, the National Security Council's head of European affairs, and Jennifer Williams, Vice President Mike Pence's chief European security adviser, testified together on the morning of November 19, 2019. Later that day, Kurt Volker, the former U.S. special representative for Ukraine, and Tim Morrison, the former national security presidential adviser on Europe and Russia, gave public testimony before the House Intelligence Committee.

On November 20, 2019, Ambassador Woodland testified that he conducted his work with Giuliani at the “express direction of the president”, and that he understood a potential White House invitation for Zelensky to be contingent on Ukraine announcing investigations into the 2016 elections and Burma. Later that day, Cooper and David Hale, the under-secretary of state for political affairs, testified jointly before the committee.

On December 3, the House Intelligence Committee voted 13–9 along party lines to adopt a final report and also send it to the House Judiciary Committee. he impeachment inquiry has found that President Trump, personally and acting through agents within and outside the U.S. government, solicited the interference of a foreign government, Ukraine, to benefit his reelection.

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In furtherance of this scheme, President Trump conditioned official acts on a public announcement by the new Ukrainian President, Volodymyr Zelensky, of politically-motivated investigations, including one into President Trump's domestic political opponent. In pressuring President Zelensky to carry out his demand, President Trump withheld a White House meeting desperately sought by the Ukrainian President, and critical U.S. military assistance to fight Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.

The Republicans of the House committees had released a countering report the previous day, saying in part that the evidence does not support accusations. “The evidence presented does not prove any of these Democrat allegations, and none of the Democrats' witnesses testified to having evidence of bribery, extortion, or any high crime or misdemeanor,” said the draft report.

This report also painted the push to impeachment as solely politically motivated. “The Democrats are trying to impeach a duly elected President based on the accusations and assumptions of unelected bureaucrats who disagreed with President Trump's policy initiatives and processes,” the report's executive summary states.

A set of impeachment hearings was brought before the Judiciary Committee, with Trump and his lawyers being invited to attend. The administration declined as the president was scheduled to attend a NATO summit in London.

In a second letter on December 6, Cipollone again said that the White House would not offer a defense or otherwise participate in the impeachment inquiry, writing to chairman Jerry Nadler, “As you know, your impeachment inquiry is completely baseless and has violated basic principles of due process and fundamental fairness.” Nadler responded in a statement, “We gave President Trump a fair opportunity to question witnesses and present his own to address the overwhelming evidence before us.

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After listening to him complain about the impeachment process, we had hoped that he might accept our invitation.” The first hearing, held on December 4, 2019, was an academic discussion on the definition of an impeachable offense.

The witnesses invited by Democrats were law professors Noah Feldman from Harvard, Pamela S. Harlan from Stanford, and Michael Gerhard from the University of North Carolina. Republicans invited Jonathan Turkey, a constitutional scholar at George Washington University; Turkey, who had testified in favor of the impeachment of President Bill Clinton in 1999, testified against impeaching Trump, citing a lack of evidence.

It was observed that he contradicted his own opinion on impeachment from when Clinton was on trial. Potential articles of impeachment outlined during the hearing include abuse of power for arranging a quid pro quo with the president of Ukraine, obstruction of Congress for hindering the House's investigation, and obstruction of justice for attempting to dismiss Robert Mueller during his investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 election.

On December 5, Pelosi requested that the House Judiciary Committee draft articles of impeachment. She also said, “I could not be prouder or more inspired by the moral courage of the House Democrats.

Draft text of the articles was released later that day, as well as a report by the judiciary committee outlining the constitutional case for impeachment and asserting that impeachment is part of democratic governance”. :51 The committee planned to vote on the articles on December 12, but postponed it to the next day after the 14-hour partisan debate on the final versions of the articles lasted until after 11:00 p.m. EST.

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On December 13, the Judiciary Committee voted along party lines to pass both articles of impeachment ; both articles passed 23–17, with all Democrats present voting in support and all Republicans voting in opposition. Democrat Ted Lieu was ill and not present to vote.

On December 16, the House Judiciary Committee released a 658-page report on the articles of impeachment, specifying criminal bribery and wire fraud charges as part of the abuse of power article. The articles were forwarded to the full House for debate and a vote on whether to impeach the president on December 18.

Of the U.S. Constitution states that “The House of Representatives... shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.” On December 17, the House Rules Committee held a hearing to write the rules governing the debate over impeachment.

One of the highlights of this contentious event was Georgia representative Barry Louder milk comparing the impeachment inquiry of President Trump to the trial of Jesus Christ, saying that the Christian savior was treated far better by the authorities. Maryland representative Stony Homer contributed closing arguments: “All of us feel a sense of loyalty to party ...

It's what helps hold presidents and majorities accountable. Shortly after 8:30 pm EST, both articles of impeachment passed.

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Days before the impeachment vote, it was leaked that Jeff Van Drew was planning on switching parties from Democratic to Republican. A day after the vote, he officially announced that he was switching parties.

Three representatives pending retirement did not vote: Republican Duncan D. Hunter, who was banned from voting under the House's rules after to illegally using campaign funds; Democrat José E. Serrano, who had a health setback after being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease earlier in the year; and Republican John Shims, who was visiting his son in Tanzania. A day after Trump's impeachment, the evangelical magazine Christianity Today published an editorial calling for his removal from office, stating that the president “attempted to use his political power to coerce a foreign leader to harass and discredit one of the president's political opponents.

That is not only a violation of the Constitution; more importantly, it is profoundly immoral.” On December 21, conservative Bill Bristol and a group calling itself “Republicans for the Rule of Law” released an ad encouraging viewers to call their senators to demand top Trump officials be forced to testify in his impeachment trial.

Trump has questioned the validity of the impeachment, citing Harvard law professor Noah Feldman, who argued that the impeachment has technically not taken place until the articles are handed to the Senate. Jonathan Turkey later refuted this argument in an op-ed.

Got ZERO Republican votes, there was no crime, the call with Ukraine was perfect, with “no pressure.” Also, very unfair with no Due Process, proper representation, or witnesses.

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Now Pelosi is demanding everything the Republicans weren't allowed to have in the House. Dems want to run majority Republican Senate.

Attorney George T. Conway III and others have noted that if the relevant witnesses are not allowed to testify, Trump's defenders will be negatively affected by “the very evidence they sought to suppress”. Prior to the House impeachment vote, McConnell and Senate Judiciary Committee chairman Lindsey Graham expressed their intentions not to be impartial jurors, contrary to the oath they must take.

On December 15, with the support of all 47 Senate Democrats, Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer wrote a letter to McConnell calling for Mick Juliana, Robert Blair, John Bolton, and Michael Duffy to testify, suggesting that pre-trial proceedings take place on January 6, 2021. Two days later, McConnell rejected the call for witnesses to testify, saying that the Senate's role is simply to act as “judge and jury” and not to aid the impeachment process.

He also suggested that witnesses be called during the trial, as had happened after Clinton's impeachment. Schumer said that he “did not hear a single sentence, a single argument as to why the witnesses I suggested should not give testimony”, citing bipartisan public support for testimony which could fill in gaps caused by Trump having prevented his staff from testifying in the House investigation.

On January 2, 2021, Schumer called newly unreacted emails from Trump administration officials “a devastating blow to Senator McConnell's push to have a trial without the documents and witnesses we've requested”. At least four Republican senators needed to vote with Democrats for witnesses to be called.

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Republicans have suggested calling Joe and Hunter Biden to testify; the former stated his objection to this, but said he would obey a subpoena. Rudy Giuliani has stated his willingness to testify or even try the impeachment “as a racketeering case”, despite being Trump's personal attorney and allegedly attempting to help him politically while searching for evidence against the Biden's in Ukraine.

The following day, McConnell met with Schumer briefly to discuss the trial. After the Senate reconvened from its holiday break, Lindsey Graham proposed that he and McConnell “change the rules of the Senate, so we could start the trial without , if necessary”.

On January 7, 2021, McConnell announced he had the caucus backing to pass a blueprint for the trial, which discussed witnesses and evidence after the opening arguments. Pelosi called for the resolution to be published before she could proceed with the next steps, but McConnell asserted that the House had no leverage and that there would be no negotiating over the trial.

This prompted several Democratic senators to voice their readiness to have the trial begin. On January 9, Pelosi said she would deliver the articles soon, but continued to cite a need for Republican transparency in the Senate; that same day, McConnell informed members of his caucus that he expected the trial to begin the next week, and Senator Josh Hawley announced that McConnell had signed on as a co-sponsor to his resolution to dismiss articles of impeachment not sent to the Senate within 25 days.

On January 10, Pelosi announced she had “asked Judiciary Committee Chairman Jerry Nadler to be prepared to bring to the Floor next week a resolution to appoint managers and transmit articles of impeachment to the Senate”. On January 14, 2021, Pelosi announced the House managers who would prosecute the case in the Senate.

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On January 15, the House voted on Resolution 798, which appointed the impeachment managers and approved the articles of impeachment to be sent to the Senate. Later that afternoon, Pelosi held a rare public engrossment ceremony, followed by a stately procession of the managers and other House officers across the Capitol building, where the third impeachment of a U.S. president was announced to the senate.

Except the managers, who would conduct the trial, the House's involvement in the impeachment process came to an end. While the impeachment inquiry was underway, Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell started planning a possible trial.

On December 12, as the articles were being considered by the House Judiciary Committee, McConnell met with White House counsel Pat Cipollone and Director of Legislative Affairs Eric Upland. McConnell stated later that day, “Everything I do during this I'm coordinating with the White House counsel.

McConnell added that the coordination with the White House would also pertain to whether witnesses would be allowed to testify, and told Sean Hannity of Fox News that there was no chance Trump would be convicted, expressing his hope that all Senate Republicans would acquit the president of both charges. Republican senators Lisa Murkowski and Susan Collins criticized McConnell's comments regarding coordinating with the White House.

Collins has been critical of Democratic senator Elizabeth Warren for prejudging the trial. The U.S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice of the United States presides over impeachment proceedings.

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The current chief justice was John Roberts, who was appointed by President George W. Bush in 2005. The House managers, acting as prosecutors for the case, were several Democratic representatives, consisting of Adam Schiff as lead manager, Jerry Nadler, Zoe Loren, Hakeem Jeffries, Val Deming's, Jason Crow, and Sylvia Garcia.

The articles were formally delivered on January 15, 2021, and were presented the following day. At the end of the session on January 21, the Senate voted along party lines to pass McConnell's proposed trial rules and reject 11 amendments proposed by Democrats.

McConnell stated that he wanted to follow the rules laid down during the Clinton trial in 1999, which had the morning reserved for Senate business and the afternoon hours reserved for the trial, but his resolution increased the hours spent per day on opening arguments from six to eight hours. The resolution also included provisions for a vote on whether to subpoena witnesses or documents after opening arguments.

The prosecution's opening arguments and presentation of evidence took place between January 22 and 24, 2020. On the first day, Schumer called the previous evening “a dark night for the Senate”, when the White House, in response to Freedom of Information Act lawsuit, released new evidence including a string of heavily redacted emails revealing details about how the Office of Management and Budget froze aid to Ukraine.

Trump's defense presentation began on January 25. The primary arguments were a lack of direct evidence of wrongdoing and that Democrats were attempting to use the impeachment to steal the 2020 election.

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Professor Alan Dershowitz argued that while a president can be impeached for committing a criminal act, irrespective of motive, the idea of a 'quid pro quo' being a basis for removal from office requires that the 'quo' be something illegal, and that simply having mixed motives for requesting a legal act (an investigation into alleged corruption) would not be sufficient grounds for impeachment. This position was criticized by Democratic political consultant and commentator Paul Be gala in an editorial that did not address the legality/illegality aspect of the analysis.

On January 31, after a planned debate session, the Senate voted against allowing subpoenas to call witnesses, including former national security advisor John Bolton (who wrote in his forthcoming book mentioning Ukraine aid freezing), or documents with a 51–49 vote. 51 Republican senators voted against calling witnesses, while 45 Democratic senators, two independents who typically voted Democratic, and two Republicans (Mitt Romney and Susan Collins) voted for witnesses.

Under the U.S. Constitution, a two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to convict the president. On February 5, 2021, the Senate acquitted Trump on both counts.

The votes were sharply divided along party lines. Mitt Romney became the first senator in history from an impeached president's party to vote to convict, voting “guilty” on the first count.

Before the trial, in mid-January 2020, Americans were sharply divided on whether Trump should be removed from office, with Democrats largely supporting removal, Republicans largely opposing, and independents divided. A USA Today / Suffolk University poll conducted between December 10 and 14, 2019 found that 45% of respondents supported the impeachment and removal of Trump from office, while 51% opposed it.

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A CNN poll conducted from December 12 to 15 also found 45% supported impeachment and removal, compared to 47% who opposed the idea. A Gallup poll released on the day of Trump's impeachment found that the president's approval rating increased by six points during the impeachment process, while support for the impeachment fell.

Another CNN poll conducted between January 16 and 19, 2020 found that 51% supported Trump's removal from office, compared to 45% who opposed it. An NBC / Wall Street Journal poll released on January 2, 2021 showed 46% favored removal from office and 49% opposed, with the in favor/opposed being almost exclusively along party lines.

Polling of Americans on the impeachment and removal from office of Trump Poll source Date(s) conducted Sample size Margin of error SupportOpposeUndecided Yahoo! News / YouGov December 4–6, 2019 1500 ± 2.8% 47% 39% 14% Monmouth University December 4–8, 2019 903 ± 3.3% 45% 50% 5% Fox News December 8–11, 2019 1000 RV ± 3% 50% 41% 5% NPR / PBS Newshound / Marxist December 9–11, 2019 1744 ± 3.5% 46% 49% 5% USA Today / Suffolk December 10–14, 2019 1000 RV ± 3% 45.2% 50.5% 4.3% Quinnipiac University December 11–15, 2019 1390 RV ± 4.1% 45% 51% 4% CNN / SSRS December 12–15, 2019 888 RV ± 3.7% 45% 47% 9% December 18, 2019, Donald Trump is impeached by the House of Representatives Politico / Morning Consult December 19–20, 2019 1387 RV ± 3.0% 51% 42% 6% The Economist / YouGov December 22–24, 2019 1500 ± 2.9% 44% 41% 14% CNN / SSRS January 16–19, 2020 1156 ± 3.4% 51% 45% 4% NBC / The Wall Street Journal January 26–29, 2020 1000 RV ± 3.1% 46% 49% 5% Two days after he was acquitted by the Senate in the impeachment trial, Trump fired two witnesses who testified in the impeachment inquiry about his conduct.

On February 7, Gordon Woodland's ambassadorship was terminated, and Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Indian was escorted from the White House after a dismissal from his job on the National Security Council. At the same time, Indian's twin brother Even, likewise an Army Lieutenant Colonel on the National Security Council, was also dismissed.

Shortly before the firings, Trump said he was “not happy” with Alexander Indian; after the firings, Trump said he “didn't know” Alexander Vindman, but he was “very insubordinate”. Alexander Indian's lawyer responded that his client “was asked to leave for telling the truth.

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Woodland reacted by stating that he was “grateful to President Trump for the opportunity to serve”. In April 2020, Trump fired Michael K. Atkinson, the inspector general of the intelligence community.

Trump further complained that Atkinson “never even came in to see me. “; he also concluded that Atkinson was “not a big Trump fan”.

Atkinson responded that he believed Trump had fired him for “having faithfully discharged my legal obligations as an independent and impartial Inspector General, and from my commitment to continue to do so”. ^ Intended to help Ukraine in its war against Russian-backed separatist forces in Don bass ^ Johnson sought election to a full term, but failed to gain the nomination of his (Democratic) party, and the election was won by (Republican candidate) Ulysses S. Grant.

^ Nixon was pardoned for his crimes by his successor, Gerald Ford. ^ Clinton was found to be guilty of civil contempt of court stemming from the Jones v. Clinton case over his testimony.

Clinton ended up agreeing to a five-year suspension from practicing law in Arkansas. Clinton would resign from the bar during the appeal process of disbarment from the court.

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^ Agreement based on a simple majority. Of the 41 members, Ted Lieu, who represented California's 33rd, was ill and not present to vote, leaving 40 votes.

Being an even number, half plus one is needed for a majority, yielding 21 as the number of Aye votes for agreement. Of the 435 House seats for the 116th Congress's first session, four were vacant: Maryland's 7th, New York's 27th, Wisconsin's 7th, and California's 25th.

Three members were not present for the vote: Duncan D. Hunter from California's 50th was banned from voting, José E. Serrano from New York's 15th was prevented from voting due to medical issues; and John Shims from Illinois's 15th was on personal trip to Tanzania. This left 428 votes but, being an even number, half plus one is needed for a majority, yielding 215 as the number of yea votes for adoption.

^ a b c Adoption based on a simple majority. ^ One of Juliana's top aides until being promoted by Trump on December 23 to a special representative for global telecommunications' policy.

^ The former national security advisor did not attend his scheduled House deposition on November 7, 2019, and threatened to take legal action if he was subpoenaed. According to a House Intelligence Committee official, this is evidence of the president's obstruction of Congress.

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On January 6, 2021, Bolton said that he would be willing to testify in the Senate trial if subpoenaed. However, Trump has said that he would invoke executive privilege to keep him from testifying.

^ a b Graham also proposed that the trial “use the Clinton model, where you ... let the House managers ... make the argument, let the president make his argument why the two articles are flawed, and then we'll decide whether we want witnesses.” ^ a b Senators Susan Collins and Mitt Romney expressed their openness to calling witnesses.

McConnell, Graham, Murkowski, and Collins suggested that this happens later in the trial, with McConnell citing the 100–0 agreement on a similar process following Clinton's impeachment. ^ A further 20 emails remain fully undisclosed.

Of the 435 House seats for the 116th Congress's first session, five were vacant: Maryland's 7th, New York's 27th, Wisconsin's 7th, California's 25th, and California's 50th. Nine members were not present for the vote, four Democrats and five Republicans: Lacy Clay from Missouri's 1st, Ann Kirkpatrick from Arizona's 2nd, Tulsa Gab bard from Hawaii's 2nd, John Lewis from Georgia's 5th, Kenny Merchant from Texas's 24th, Rick Crawford from Arkansas's 2nd, Debbie Less from Arizona's 8th, Tom McClintock from California's 4th, and Mike Simpson Idaho's 2nd.

^ The office of Chief Justice is only mentioned once in the constitution and it is in relation to impeachment trials of the president. ^ The night after the Senate voted against subpoenaing witnesses in the trial, the Justice Department and a lawyer for the Office of Management and Budget acknowledged that some emails which remain undisclosed due to executive privilege contain details about why military aid to Ukraine was frozen.

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^ Trump has also argued that the impeachment's timing was designed to hurt Bernie Sanders' presidential campaign by forcing him to focus on the trial instead. ^ Guilt based on “the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present” according to the Constitution ().

^ These polls are color-coded relative to the margin of error (×2 for spread). If the poll is within the doubled margin of error, both colors are used.

“Ukraine's Zelensky Bowed to Trump's Demands, Until Luck Spared Him”. ^ “No senator ever voted to remove a president of his own party from office.

^ a b Baker, Peter; Haber man, Maggie; Hakim, Danny; Schmidt, Michael S. (February 7, 2021). “ Trump Fires Impeachment Witnesses Gordon Woodland and Alexander Indian in Post-Acquittal Purge”.

“As goes his presidency, so goes his impeachment : Trump disrupts and divides”. “Long Before Trump, Impeachment Loomed Over Multiple Presidents”.

^ “Clinton asks to quit Supreme Court Bar”. ^ U.S. Supreme Court Order Archived January 22, 2002, at the Payback Machine.

“Reps. Green and Sherman announce plan to file articles of impeachment ". “House votes to kill Texas lawmaker's Trump impeachment effort”.

^ Werner, Erica; Dennis, Mike (November 7, 2018). “Democrats take House, breaking up GOP's total control of government”.

“With Sweeping Document Request, Democrats Launch Broad Trump Corruption Inquiry”. “Nadler: 'This is formal impeachment proceedings “.

Trump Publicly Urges China to Investigate the Biden's”. ^ Stracqualursi, Veronica; Warren, Michael (October 12, 2019).

“Rudy Giuliani tells CNN he's unaware he's under investigation for Ukraine involvement”. Retrieved December 18, 2019. The unraveling Ukraine scandal ^ Marlin, Alexander; Karl, Jonathan (September 30, 2019).

“Barr asked Trump for introductions to Italy, Australia in Russia probe review”. ^ Savage, Charlie ; Williams, Josh (October 4, 2019).

“Read the Text Messages Between U.S. and Ukrainian Officials”. A newly released set of text exchanges revealed details about President Trump's efforts to use American foreign policy to benefit himself.

“Exclusive: Unreacted Ukraine Documents Reveal Extent of Pentagon's Legal Concerns”. ^ a b Stolen, Sheryl Gay (December 22, 2019).

“Democrats, Citing White House Emails, Renew Calls for Impeachment Witnesses”. ^ a b Plant, Katelyn; Kelly, Caroline (January 3, 2021).

“New York Times: Trump administration withholds emails on Ukraine aid”. ^ AJU, Many; Herb, Jeremy; Cohen, Marshall (November 9, 2019).

“We read all 2,677 pages of impeachment inquiry testimony released to date. “Whistleblower claimed Trump abused his office and that White House officials tried to cover it up”.

^ “Telephone Conversation with President Zelensky of Ukraine” (PDF). ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Fandom, Nicholas; Hakim, Danny (October 29, 2019).

“White House Ukraine Expert Sought to Correct Transcript of Trump Call”. Trump says the whistleblower complaint isn't accurate.

“Mounting evidence buttresses the facts laid out in whistleblower complaint”. “First on CNN: White House says lawyers directed moving Ukraine transcript to highly secure system”.

^ Miller, Zeke; Tucker, Eric; Balsam, Michael (September 28, 2019). “Subpoenas mark first concrete steps for Trump impeachment ".

^ a b Becket, Stefan; Sewers, Grace; Watson, Kathryn (October 18, 2019). “Juliana links delay in Ukraine aid to DOJ investigation into 2016”.

^ Tucker, Philip; Bade, Rachael; Horowitz, Colby (October 4, 2019). “ Trump publicly calls on China to investigate Biden's”.

^ a b Bade, Rachael; German, Anne; Damian, Around; Dennis, Mike (October 22, 2019). “ Trump made Ukraine aid contingent on public pledge to investigate Biden's and 2016 election, U.S. envoy says he was told”.

^ Impeachment inquiry: Donald Trump directed Ukraine to dig up dirt on Joe Biden, ambassador claims”. Bade, Rachael; Dennis, Mike (September 24, 2019).

“Pelosi announces impeachment inquiry, says Trump's courting of foreign political help is a 'betrayal of national security “. “Nancy Pelosi Announces Formal Impeachment Inquiry of Trump ".

“Pelosi announces formal impeachment inquiry, but leaves some questions”. Becket, Stefan; Farsi, Arden; Watson, Kathryn (October 23, 2019).

“Top diplomat tells lawmakers Ukraine aid was directly tied to investigations”. ^ Moe, Alex; Shaped, Rebecca (October 23, 2019).

Trump's ex-Russia adviser told impeachment investigators of Giuliani's efforts in Ukraine”. “The Cost of Trump's Aid Freeze in the Trenches of Ukraine's War”.

“The White House's scathing and legally dubious impeachment letter, annotated”. “Juliana acknowledges Trump held up Ukraine aid for political reasons: 'Get over it “.

“Four Chairs Statement on Resolution for Open Hearings on Trump's Abuse of Power”. House Foreign Affairs Committee.

Impeachment hearings begin with new evidence of phone call implicating Trump in Ukraine controversy”. ^ Herb, Jeremy; AJU, Many (November 15, 2019).

“Former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine tells impeachment inquiry she was 'shocked and devastated' after being removed from her post”. ^ Bertrand, Natasha; Forged, Quint; Marshall, Abbey (November 19, 2019).

“Election meddling, an 'improper' call, and twins: What we learned in Indian and Williams' testimony”. “Morrison and Volker are the witnesses Republicans requested”.

“6 things we learned from Gordon Woodland's impeachment testimony”. ^ Trump seeks to distance himself from Woodland”.

Baker, Peter; Schmidt, Michael S. (November 20, 2019). “ Impeachment Hearing Live Updates: Gordon Woodland Ties Trump to Ukraine Pressure Campaign”.

“3 takeaways from Laura Cooper's and David Hale's testimony”. Impeachment Inquiry Live Updates: Fiona Hill Denounces 'Fictional' Claim of Ukraine Meddling in 2016”.

^ Mascara, Lisa; Janice, Mary Clare; Tucker, Eric (November 22, 2019). “Ex-official undercuts Trump defense: Hill testifies to diplomat's 'domestic political errand' and warns against Russia”.

^ AJU, Many; Herb, Jeremy (December 3, 2019). “House Democrats vote to send impeachment report to Judiciary Committee”.

^ Blitzer, Bonn; Re, Gregg (December 3, 2019). “House Democrats vote to adopt Trump impeachment report, blast scheme to 'solicit foreign interference' in 2020 race”.

^ “Report of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Pursuant to H. Res. 660 in Consultation with the House Committee on Oversight and Reform and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs” (PDF).

U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. ^ Jansen, Bart; Hayes, Christa (December 2, 2019).

“House GOP report on impeachment inquiry defends Trump's dealings with Ukraine”. ^ “READ: Republican Report On The Impeachment Inquiry”.

“House GOP Rebuts Democrats' Impeachment Efforts: No 'Bribery, Extortion' Proven”. ^ Janice, Mary Clare; Miller, Zeke (December 22, 2019).

Trump invited to House Judiciary Committee's first impeachment hearing”. ^ Trump will not participate in impeachment hearing, White House says”.

“White House won't participate in impeachment hearings, tells Nadler to 'end this inquiry now “. “White House rejects House Democrats' invitation to participate in impeachment process as Trump focuses on friendly Senate”.

^ “House Judiciary reveals witnesses for first impeachment hearing”. ^ “The Impeachment Hearings, Debate on Article IV”.

^ “GOP witness to say Trump impeachment would set a 'dangerous precedent “. “The GOP's only impeachment witness on Wednesday contradicted his own previous testimony”.

“Jonathan Turkey Is Exhibit A That the Clinton Debacle Never Really Ended”. Trump impeachment hearings: Legal scholars' testimony in both Trump, Clinton cases stress 'Abuse of power “.

^ Algerian, Chris; Haverford, Jennifer; Wire, Sarah D. (December 4, 2019). “Democrats outline potential articles of impeachment against Trump ".

^ “Pelosi announces full speed ahead with articles of impeachment against Trump ". ^ “Democrats take big new step toward impeaching Trump ".

“Democrats unveil 2 articles of impeachment against Trump ". “House Democrats Unveil Articles of Impeachment Against Trump ".

^ Wagner, John; Epstein, Kayla; Brice-Saddler, Michael (December 10, 2019). “House Democrats unveil two articles of impeachment against Trump ; White House predicts 'full exoneration' in GOP-led Senate”.

755, Articles of Impeachment Against President Donald J. Trump ". “In surprise move infuriating Republicans, Judiciary Committee delays impeachment vote until Friday”.

^ “Democrats accuse Trump of criminal bribery, wire fraud in report that explains articles of impeachment ". ^ Siegel, Benjamin; Founders, Katherine (December 13, 2019).

“House Judiciary Committee passes articles of impeachment against President Trump ". ^ “Rules Committee Announces Meeting to Consider Resolution Impeaching Donald John Trump, President of the United States, for High Crimes and Misdemeanors”.

“Rep. Stony Homer made a quiet, powerful case for bipartisanship during the impeachment debate”. “House impeaches Donald Trump in historic vote, reshuffling U.S. politics on eve of 2020”.

^ Trump becomes third president to be impeached”. Representatives Collin C. Peterson of Minnesota and Jeff Van Drew of New Jersey broke with their party on the abuse of power charge, while Representative Jared Golden of Maine joined them in opposition to the article accusing the president of obstruction of Congress.

^ Haverford, Jennifer; Wire, Sarah D.; Algerian, Chris; O'Toole, Molly (December 18, 2019). “U.S. House impeaches President Trump ".

^ Fandom, Nicholas ; Shear, Michael D. (December 18, 2019). “ Trump Impeached for Abuse of Power and Obstruction of Congress”.

^ Martin, Jonathan; Corasaniti, Nick (December 14, 2019). “Representative Jeff Van Drew, Anti- Impeachment Democrat, Plans to Switch Parties”.

“Rep. Jeff Van Drew Officially Switches Parties, Pledges 'Undying Support' For Trump ". “3 Lawmakers Miss Historic Impeachment Votes”.

Rebecca; Parlaying, Alicia; White, Jeremy; Buchanan, Larry (2019). “ Impeachment Results: How Democrats and Republicans Voted”.

Four House seats are vacant, and three additional members are not expected to vote, which would make 215 the threshold to pass each article. “Evangelical magazine Christianity Today calls for Trump's removal after impeachment ".

^ Paperless, Mary (December 21, 2019), “Witnesses 'Must Testify' At Impeachment Trial, Declares GOP Group. “A technical argument is Trump's new line of attack”.

“Jonathan Turkey refutes Dem lawyer, says Trump was impeached despite withheld articles”. Trump lashes out at Pelosi on Christmas, decries 'scam impeachment “.

“Opinion | Explosive new revelations just weakened Trump's impeachment defenses”. “15 things you need to know about how Senate impeachment trials work”.

“Law professor writes Kentucky newspaper op-ed accusing McConnell of breaking two oaths”. ^ Barrett, Ted; Slav, Ali (December 17, 2019).

“Mitch McConnell: 'I'm not an impartial juror' ahead of Senate impeachment trial”. ' I'm not trying to pretend to be a fair juror here': Graham predicts Trump impeachment will 'die quickly' in Senate”.

Trump elevates Juliana aide weeks after he defied impeachment subpoena”. Impeachment investigators pressing forward without John Bolton”.

^ Fandom, Nicholas; Schmidt, Michael S. (January 6, 2021). “Bolton Is Willing to Testify in Trump Impeachment Trial, Raising Pressure for Witnesses”.

Trump Will Invoke Executive Privilege to Block Bolton Testimony”. ^ “Democrats call for witnesses in impeachment trial”.

“GOP predicts bipartisan acquittal at Trump impeachment trial”. ^ Morgan, David; Cornell, Susan (December 17, 2019).

“On eve of expected impeachment, Trump lashes out at Pelosi, Democrats”. “McConnell rejects Schumer's call for witnesses at impeachment trial”.

“Graham gives Pelosi ultimatum, proposes Senate rule change to remove her from impeachment process”. “McConnell shreds House's 'slapdash' impeachment investigation, hits Schumer for wanting new witnesses”.

' Cover Up': McConnell Won't Allow Crucial Witnesses to Testify at Trump Impeachment Trial”. “Schumer: Newly revealed emails a 'devastating blow' to McConnell's impeachment trial plans”.

“McConnell has the votes to block Democrats' witness demands in Trump impeachment trial”. “Biden reiterates that he won't testify in a Senate impeachment trial”.

' I would obey any subpoena': Joe Biden now says”. “Giuliani says he would be willing to testify in impeachment trial and would 'love to try the case “.

“Pelosi noncommittal on delivering impeachment articles to Senate”. “Timing of Trump Impeachment Trial in Limbo as Pelosi Holds Out for Assurances”.

^ a b Trump impeachment : Democrats try to delay start to Senate trial”. ^ Everett, Burgess; Levine, Marianne (January 7, 2021).

“McConnell ready to start impeachment trial with partisan power play”. ^ Some, Felicia; Horowitz, Colby; Wagner, John; Sung Min, Kim (January 7, 2021).

“Pelosi says impeachment articles won't go to Senate until she learns more about how trial would be conducted”. “Dear Colleague on Senator McConnell's Untrue Claims Regarding Impeachment ".

“McConnell tells Republicans he expects impeachment trial next week”. “McConnell backs measure to change Senate rules, dismiss impeachment without articles”.

“Pelosi: House will move to transmit impeachment articles next week”. ^ a b “Pelosi Names Impeachment Managers”.

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ^ McCarthy, Tom; Amino, Lauren; Glenda, Jessica (January 15, 2021).

“Pelosi names trial managers to carry articles of impeachment to the Senate”. ^ “The rare and bizarre ritual of marching the impeachment articles from the House to the Senate”.

^ “FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 18”. “How Mitch McConnell is managing impeachment and a fragmenting Republican response”.

“GOP senator plans to seek dismissal of impeachment articles”. “McConnell says he'll be in 'total coordination' with White House on impeachment trial strategy”.

“McConnell: 'There's no chance' Trump is removed from office”. “Second Republican senator, Susan Collins, criticizes Mitch McConnell for impeachment bias, says she's open to calling witnesses”.

“Collins knocks McConnell, Democrats: 'Inappropriate' to prejudge Trump trial”. “At Impeachment Trial, Chief Justice Roberts May Have More Prestige Than Power”.

^ a b Fox, Lauren; AJU, Many; Herb, Jeremy (January 20, 2021). “ Impeachment resolution shortens trial's opening arguments to two days per side”.

^ Founders, Katherine; Turner, Trish; Siegel, Benjamin; Ebbs, Stephanie; Owen, Quinn (January 21, 2021). “ Trump impeachment : GOP-led Senate rejects amendments, approves rules of trial”.

^ Kim, Sung Min; Some, Felicia; Dennis, Mike (January 22, 2021). “Senate adopts ground rules for impeachment trial, delaying a decision on witnesses until after much of the proceedings”.

^ “Senate adopts trial rules after bitter debate over evidence”. “Emails Show Budget Office Working to Carry Out Ukraine Aid Freeze”.

Trump admin releases trove of documents on Ukrainian military aid”. “Justice Department acknowledges 24 emails reveal Trump's thinking on Ukraine”.

“Top takeaways from the start of the Trump team's impeachment defense”. Trump : Impeachment timing intended to hurt Sanders”.

Trump Tied Ukraine Aid to Inquiries He Sought, Bolton Book Says”. ^ Herb, Jeremy; Mat tingly, Phil; AJU, Many; Fox, Lauren (January 31, 2021).

“Senate impeachment trial: Wednesday acquittal vote scheduled after effort to have witnesses, fails”. ^ Haltiwanger, John; Seth, Sonar (January 31, 2021).

“In an Unprecedented Move, the Senate Voted against Calling Witnesses in Trump's Impeachment Trial”. “Here's how Trump could be impeached, removed from office, and still win re-election in 2020”.

^ “How senators voted on Trump's impeachment ". ^ Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 116th Congress, Second Session (PDF) (Report).

Trump Acquitted of Two Impeachment Charges in Near Party-Line Vote”. ^ Cummings, Susan Page, Nicholas Wu and William (December 15, 2019).

“USA TODAY poll: Narrow majority opposes removing Trump from office if he is impeached”. “CNN Poll: The nation remains divided on impeachment as House vote approaches”.

Trump Approval Inches Up, While Support for Impeachment Dips”. “CNN poll: 51% say Senate should remove Trump from office”.

^ “NBC/WSJ poll: Country remains divided over Trump's impeachment trial”. “New Yahoo News/YouGov poll shows that Democrats have so far failed to seal the deal on impeachment ".

“Most Say Trump Hindered Inquiry, But Impeachment Opinion is Unmoved”. ^ “Fox News Poll results December 8–11, 2019”.

“Poll: Opinions Of Impeachment Remain Unchanged; Signs Point To Base Election In 2020”. ^ “January 1, 2021: National Poll with USA TODAY” (PDF).

“Poll: Majority approves of Trump's impeachment ". “Almost 50% of Americans Say Donald Trump Will Go Down in History as 'Poor' or 'Below Average' President, Poll Finds”.

^ a b c Baker, Peter; Haber man, Maggie; Hakim, Danny; Schmidt, Michael (February 7, 2021). “ Trump Fires Impeachment Witnesses Gordon Woodland and Alexander Indian in Post-Acquittal Purge”.

^ a b Trump defends firing impeachment witness Alexander Indian”. ^ Trump to Fire Intelligence Watchdog Who Had Key Role in Ukraine Complaint”.

“Outgoing inspector general says Trump fired him for carrying out his 'legal obligations “. “New York congressional members say they're safe; One calls for Trump's impeachment ".

^ Fitzpatrick, Edward; Milkmaids, Amanda; McGowan, Dan (January 6, 2021). “R.I. delegation decries 'outrageous' attack by Trump supporters on US Capitol”.

“James Cliburn calls impeaching Trump again a waste of time, but says he's open to DOJ charges”. “Capitol protesters loot, vandalize Nancy Pelosi's office”.

^ “Shattered glass, ransacked offices: Images of damage at U.S. Capitol left by pro- Trump mob”. ^ “Capitol Police officer dies from injuries in pro- Trump riot”.

“Woman dies after shooting in U.S. Capitol; D.C. National Guard activated after mob breaches building”. Trump Told Crowd 'You Will Never Take Back Our Country With Weakness “.

“Democratic lawmakers call for Pence to invoke 25th Amendment, remove Trump from office”. “Than Omar drawing up impeachment articles as seven Dems call for Trump's removal amid insurrection at US Capitol”.

“U.S. lawmaker draws up impeachment papers on Trump after mobs storm Capitol”. ^ “Read: House Democrats' draft of a new article of impeachment against Trump ".

“Draft of article of impeachment says Trump incited insurrection -MSNBC”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Impeachment of Donald Trump.

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