The Detroit Post
Thursday, 21 October, 2021

Rust Where Generic

author
Carole Stephens
• Saturday, 05 December, 2020
• 8 min read

Generics is the topic of generalizing types and functionalities to broader cases. This is extremely useful for reducing code duplication in many ways, but can call for rather involving syntax.

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Contents

Rust Generics is a language feature for code reuse in multiple contexts using different actual types for Structs, Functions, Methods, and Ends. Moreover, they allow for concise and clean codes by minimizing boilerplate while providing type-safety.

When we use Generics, we are using Generic Data Types in defining, for instance, a Function. Then that Function can work with different actual data types.

This post explains how they work and why they are essential. How we use generics depends on what we are trying to define.

We can use multiple type parameters in a single definition. Type parameters can have bounds, especially when using traits.

Meaning, they are generic enough but must implement those traits. U is any type that implements the Debug trait because we need to “debug” its contents.

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Fn put_animal_in_crate_and_print(animal: U) {print!(“{:? Now, let’s see how we define functions, methods, structs, and ends with Generics.

}”, a);} if b == Result::B(“BBB”.to_string()) {print!(“{:? Using Generics with Function and Method definitions differ slightly.

Functions are independent blocks of codes, whereas methods are functions attached to Struct or its instance. Here is an example of Rust Generics with Struct and its method.

Struct Book {content: T} imply Book {FN get_content(self) T {self.content} } FN main() {let box_of_string: Book = Book {content: “A String”.to_string()}; let box_of_i32: Book = Book {content: 10000}; print! On the other hand, here is an example of Rust Generics with function.

Fn my_function(paras: T) T {paras} FN main() {print! There are advanced usages of Rust Generics with Structs, Functions, Methods, and Ends that are beyond the scope of this post.

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Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. This crate implements a structure that can be used as a generic array type.

Listing 10-4: Two functions that differ only in their names and the types in their signatures To parameterize the types in the signature of the one function we're going to define, we need to create a name for the type parameter, just like how we give names for the value parameters to a function.

Generic type parameter names also tend to be short by convention, often just one letter. Listing 10-5 shows the unified largest function definition using the generic data type in its signature, and shows how we'll be able to call largest with either a slice of i32 values or char values.

Listing 10-5: A definition of the largest function that uses generic type parameters but doesn't compile yet The standard library has defined the trait std::CMP::Partial that types can implement to enable comparisons.

In listing 10-8, we've changed the definition of Point to be generic over types T and U. You can use as many generic type parameters in a definition as you want, but using more than a few gets hard to read and understand.

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If you get to a point of needing lots of generic types, it's probably a sign that your code could use some restructuring to be separated into smaller pieces. Similarly to structs, ends can be defined to hold generic data types in their variants.

We used the Option ENIM provided by the standard library in Chapter 6, and now its definition should make more sense. The standard library only has to have this one definition to support the creation of values of this ENIM that have any concrete type.

When you recognize situations in your code with multiple struct or ENIM definitions that differ only in the types of the values they hold, you can remove the duplication by using the same process we used with the function definitions to introduce generic types instead. Like we did in Chapter 5, we can implement methods on structs and ends that have generic types in their definitions.

We've then defined a method named x on Point that returns a reference to the data in the field x : Listing 10-9: Implementing a method named x on the Point struct that will return a reference to the x field, which is of type T.

Note that we have to declare T just after imply, so that we can use it when we specify that we're implementing methods on the type Point. The method takes another Point as a parameter, which might have different types than the endpoint that we're calling mix up on.

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Listing 10-10: Methods that use different generic types than their struct's definition Note that the generic parameters T and U are declared after imply, since they go with the struct definition.

The generic parameters V and W are declared after FN mix up, since they are only relevant to the method. You may have been reading this section and wondering if there's a run-time cost to using generic type parameters.

Good news: the way that Rust has implemented generics means that your code will not run any slower than if you had specified concrete types instead of generic type parameters! Rust accomplishes this by performing monomorphization of code using generics at compile time.

What the compiler does is the opposite of the steps that we performed to create the generic function in Listing 10-5. That means we pay no runtime cost for using generics; when the code runs, it performs just like it would if we had duplicated each particular definition by hand.

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