The Detroit Post
Thursday, 21 October, 2021

Rust For Black

Daniel Brown
• Friday, 16 October, 2020
• 11 min read

The same is true of rust and corrosion, often it’s the things that aren’t visible or that are less obvious that result in the greatest damage. Visually, rust appears in a color spectrum that can range from yellow to red to black.

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Conditions that lead to rust formation also run the spectrum, but most can be attributed to one of three general factors: With so many variables inside a manufacturing setting, maintaining tight control of your processes is critical to preventing rust.

Acidic materials such as corrugated and non-treated paper can actually trap or hold moisture and cause corrosion. While the weather (temperature and humidity) can certainly be the most obvious environmental factor, other things such as contaminants in the air pose equal areas of concern.

Identifying the type of rust you are experiencing can provide valuable insight as to what may be its root cause. Red rust is the result of heavy exposure to air and moisture, combined many times with a contaminate (salt).

Rust from Iron (III) oxides with limited oxygen and low moisture results in black rust. Most likely the areas exhibiting the black rust had something covering them, which prevented oxygen from reaching the surface.

Settings where black rust might form include wet paper resting tightly against a metal surface. Yellow rust has a high moisture content and can frequently be attributed to an environment where water is most likely present.

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Sign in to add this item to your wishlist, follow it, or mark it as not interested “ Rust is one of the cruelest games on Steam, and that's what makes it so compelling.” PC Gamer.

The only aim in Rust is to survive. To do this you will need to overcome struggles such as hunger, thirst and cold. Create alliances with other players and form a town.

Minimum: Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system OS: Windows 8.1 64bit Processor: Intel Core i7-3770 / AMD FX-9590 or better Memory: 10 GB RAM Graphics: GTX 670 2 GB / AMD R9 280 better DirectX: Version 11 Network: Broadband Internet connection Storage: 20 GB available space Additional Notes: SSD is highly recommended or expect longer than average load times. Recommended: Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system OS: Windows 10 64bit Processor: Intel Core i7-4790K / AMD Ry zen 5 1600 Memory: 16 GB RAM Graphics: GTX 980 / AMD R9 Fury DirectX: Version 12 Network: Broadband Internet connection Storage: 20 GB available space Additional Notes: SSD is highly recommended.

Minimum: Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system OS: OS X El Capitan 10.11 Processor: Intel Core i7-3770 / AMD FX-9590 or better Memory: 10 GB RAM Graphics: GTX 670 2 GB / AMD R9 280 better Networks: Broadband Internet connection Storage: 20 GB available space Additional Notes: Metal is required, Recommended: Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system OS: OS X El Capitan 10.11 Processor: Intel Core i7-4790K / AMD Ry zen 5 1600 Memory: 16 GB RAM Graphics: GTX 980 / AMD R9 Fury Network: Broadband Internet connection Storage: 20 GB available space Additional Notes: SSD is highly recommended or expect longer than average load times.

Rust converters can be a brilliant way to breathe new life into your metallic items and prevent further corrosion damage. While they’re brilliant at cleaning up surfaces and stopping corrosion, they will not bring the material back if something is rusted through.

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Before you make your decision regarding which product to buy, you should consider the rust treatment options available to you. If you want to protect the surface from future rust, you will need to apply an additional coat of paint or topcoat to keep moisture and oxygen out.

Inhibitors, such as Rust Bullet Automotive, on the other hand, turn a rusty surface into a printable one, while at the same time sealing the damage away and preventing any further corrosion from happening. Removers will etch into the surface and clean the object to the bare metal, and are more of an honorable mention in this article.

As this treatment removes material from the object, it’s not useful for deeply rusted surfaces as you may just end up being left with nothing. Smooth surfaces require less product than rough, bumpy ones, but the amount of rust present will also play a role.

As rust converters are normally water-based, they tend to be runny just like water which can be frustrating if you’re working on vertical surfaces or the underside of your car. While you don’t need to worry much about a drip here or there, you should dispose of large quantities of the converter appropriately according to your local laws.

As the substances are harsh, wearing gloves is highly advised to avoid dermatitis and skin damage. Also working in well-ventilated areas is important to protect your respiratory system, and to avoid the accumulation of corrosive vapors that are produced during the drying time.

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Why we like it: Convenient and effective, containing phosphoric acid, it’s the best option for badly rusted items. The strong formulation comes in a quart sprayer bottle but is also available by the gallon if you have a lot of rust to convert.

One quart will cover 81 square feet of smooth surface, but you may need a couple of coats depending on how bad the rust is. Depending on conditions, the conversion from oxide to phosphate will result in a black or chalky white surface that is ready to paint.

Why we like it: Although more expensive, this is a highly efficient formula that is perfect if you have a lot of rusty items to refresh. The Rust Converter Ultra comes in a one-gallon bottle that will cover 500 square feet of smooth, nonporous surface.

The main ingredient is tannin acid at around 6% by weight, which is a good amount to make the treatment effective. Tannin acid converts rust by reacting with iron oxides to form a stable, blue- black surface.

The formula contains a proprietary polymer that acts as a primer for the treated surface, so you can further protect the object with minimal effort. The rust converter doesn’t require thinning and can be applied with a brush, roller, or pump sprayer.

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After 10 minutes from the application, the rust will start turning black, but the full conversion takes around 24 hours to finish, so patience is required. The brush or roller should be cleaned with soap and water, and the product should be stored in a cool dry place to avoid degradation and prolong shelf life.

Pros Can be used with a pump sprayer Milder than phosphoric acid formulations while just as effective Can cover a large surface area It works by reacting with the rust and oxidizing it further to magnetite (Fe 3 O 4), and iron gal late, which are stable complexes.

Although the primer itself isn’t pigmented, the treated rusty surface will turn black as magnetite is formed. Prepare the surface first by brushing off dirt and loose rust, and cleaning it with some rubbing alcohol.

While this isn’t the most dangerous formulation on this list, it’s still important to wear at least a pair of nitrite gloves while working with this rust converter. Just like Locate Rust Neutralizer, it has the potential to cause harm to the reproductive system and an unborn baby, so it’s best to keep the exposure to a minimum.

Instead, this is a latex polymer formulation that will seal off the rust, preventing further corrosion, and will render a rusty surface printable. The tools should be cleaned with detergent and water immediately after used to avoid buildup which will be very difficult to remove.

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The product relies on tannin acid to convert the rust into stable iron mandate. The tannin acid content is between 3 and 7% which is similar to Rust Converter Ultra’s formula with 6%, meaning it will do the job just as well but with a premium price tag.

The formula is methanol-based, which poses a toxicity risk as well as a potential carbon monoxide release if heated. To avoid toxic vapors and a possible explosion, keep the converter away from direct sunlight and heat sources.

Pros Super effective formula Easy to use A good primer for paint Quick to dry compared to most other converters Why we like it: Perfect if you need to treat mild surface rust on cookware, toys, or antiques, as the formula is non-toxic and safe.

Why we like it: This great inhibitor formula in the most comfortable sprayer out there makes the chore of rust treatment that much more bearable. When the label says that it “converts rust to a printable surface,” what it means is that it’s a good primer.

This product doesn’t convert rust as signified by the lack of active ingredients in the formula that would react with iron oxides. Although the instruction label suggests soap and water to clean the area to be treated, this can leave behind a residue that may impact the adhesion of the primer.

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The formulation in this rust reformer is full of flammable and harmful substances such as methanol, as evidenced by the solvent odor. Be sure to wear gloves while working with the product to minimize the risk of skin contact, as ethyl benzene used in the formula is a suspected carcinogen.

Pros Easy to apply Comfort finger pad Any angle spray nozzle Why we like it: Not only is it an amazing rust inhibitor, but also it does a great job at providing you with a metallic silver finish that doesn't require any more paint.

This product is a polyurethane coating, using a proprietary polymer that will adhere to the rust and bare metal alike, and provide you with a protected surface that resists corrosion. The formulation of this primer contains aluminum, to not only provide the nice metallic finish but also to protect the surface from rust.

It’s specifically created to treat the underside of vehicles as an all-in-one treatment, so you can get back on the road as quickly as possible. The product can be applied with a brush, roller, or HPV spray equipment, such as Rebel Ultimate-750 Paint Sprayer, and it doesn’t require mixing prior to application.

Before application, the surface will need to be clean and free from grease and oil to ensure the best performance of the treatment. The formula contains aromatic solvents which are known to be potentially carcinogenic, but keeping the area well ventilated as well as wearing gloves will significantly minimize the risk.

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Pros No mixing required Can be applied to non-rusted metal as well as rust UV resistant Not toxic to aquatic life How it works is not clear, though, as the manufacturer doesn’t list all the ingredients, even on their safety data sheets.

The treated rust surface will turn black, which suggests a tannin derivative is present, which would make sense given the low pH of around 2. This will provide for easy cleanup as the application tools can be cleaned with a bit of soap and water.

As with any rust converter on this list, it is classed as a health hazard, and due caution in the form of PPE should be observed. From assessing your situation through to application, this guide will help you choose the right rust converter and get the best results no matter which product you pick.

However, this isn’t necessarily the ideal solution, particularly for deep rust as enough material can be removed to leave you with almost nothing. Use a stiff bristle brush to remove loose rust and dirt from the surface.

Use a degreased, isopropyl alcohol, or methylated spirits to clean the surface from dust, grease, and oil. Allow the item the full cure time, which will vary depending on the product you’ve chosen, after which you can paint the surface if necessary.

Now here’s a little of background rust chemistry to help you with understanding the problem you’re trying to solve, so you can pick the best solution for your situation. They’re usually formulated with a primer to allow for a coat of paint that will help to prevent rust in the long term.

Most converters are also highly acidic, with a pH below 4, so they will damage and corrode away things like plastics or rubber. Tannic Acid, used as the active ingredient in products like FDC Rust Converter Ultra will convert rust into a stable complex of iron mandate which turns the surface a blue- black color.

However, materials such as leather, paper, and fabrics can be stained and damaged if treated with tannin acid, so care should be taken to protect all non-ferrous surfaces. It converts rust into a stable Fe 3 O 4 complex, also called magnetite, as well as creating a layer of iron gal late.

The rust remains beneath but because oxygen and water can’t get through the inhibitor, corrosion is stopped and the surface is protected. These products contain organic solvents that are not acidic like the converters but pose their own hazards for example in the form of causing dizziness or being highly flammable.

They are the safest option as the removers don’t tend to use harsh acids or toxic hydrocarbons. To find out all the specifications of a chemical such as a rust converter, look for safety data sheets (SDS) of the product on the manufacturer website.

If applied thick, the dry time may be much longer, and it’s a waste of product as putting the rust converter on a stable surface will not act as any more preventive action. Typically, this takes about 48 hours, but this may depend on the product, so read the package materials well before you move forward.

Using expired rust converters can not only reduce their effectiveness but even damage the surface they’re applied to, so be sure to replace any out-of-date products. Choosing an appropriate treatment and following safety guidelines will make the job of battling your rust faster, more efficient, and frustration-free.

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