The Detroit Post
Monday, 01 March, 2021

Is Trump Tower In New York

author
Brent Mccoy
• Saturday, 02 January, 2021
• 49 min read

This article is about the building at 721 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. Her Scott of Poor, Swanky, Hayden & Connell designed Trumpeter, and Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company (now the AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company) developed it.

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Contents

Although it is in one of Midtown Manhattan's special zoning districts, the tower was approved because it was to be built as a mixed-use development. Trump was permitted to add more stories to the tower because of the atrium on the first floor.

There were controversies during construction, including the destruction of historically important sculptures from the Bowie Teller store; Trump's alleged underpaying of contractors; and a lawsuit that Trump filed because the tower was not tax-exempt. The atrium, apartments, offices, and stores opened on a staggered schedule from February to November 1983.

The site was next to Tiffany's flagship store on 57th Street, which Trump considered the city's best real-estate property. Approximately twice every year, Trump contacted Bowie Teller's parent company, Genes co, to ask whether they were willing to sell Bowie Teller's flagship store.

In 1977, John Hannigan became the new chairman of Genes co. He looked to sell off some assets to pay debts, and Trump approached him with an offer to buy the Bowie Teller building.

In February 1979, Genes co sold off many of the Bowie Teller locations to Allied Stores, and sold the brand's flagship building to the Trump Organization. At the time, the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States owned the land, while Genes co had a long-term lease on the land, with 29 years remaining.

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If Trump were to buy the land, his tower's ownership could be transferred to Equitable in 2008, once the lease expired. Equitable initially refused to sell the land to Trump, but the Trump Organization bought the lease instead, and Equitable exchanged the land in return for a 50% stake in the construction project itself.

This was more profitable for Equitable, since they were getting only $100,000 per year from Genes co for the use of the land, while a single condominium in the tower could be sold for millions of dollars. Trump also bought the air rights around Tiffany's flagship store to prevent another developer from tearing down the store and building a taller building.

Trump then needed to convince the New York City Department of City Planning, Manhattan Community Board 5, and the New York City Board of Estimate to rezone the area for his planned tower. In 1979, the New York Committee for a Balanced Building Boom had opposed the planned rezoning over fears Fifth Avenue's character would be changed by the construction of skyscrapers.

Trump later said a positive review of the building by the famed architectural critic Ada Louise Suitable had played a part in securing the support of some of the more skeptical members on each committee. The deal attracted some criticism from the media.

A writer for New York magazine said the approval of Trumpeter has “legitimized a pushy kid nobody took seriously,” while The Wall Street Journal wrote that Trump combined “a huckster's flair for hyperbole with a shrewd business and political sense,” and The Village Voice said Trump “turn political connections into private profits at public expense.” Trump hired Her Scott, the architect of Trumpeter, in July 1978, a year before the Bowie Teller site was purchased.

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Scott had collaborated with Trump before to develop Grand Hyatt New York and several other projects. The architect initially proposed a design similar to Boston's John Hancock Tower, but Trump objected strongly.

Two major factors affected TrumpTower's construction. More specifically, it employed a concrete tube structure, which had been pioneered by Bangladeshi-American structural engineer Failure Rahman Khan in the 1960s.

The other was the decision to design Trumpeter as a mixed-use building with retail, office, and residential units. Originally, Trump only wanted to build an office building on the site, but the plot was located in a special zoning district, which specified height limits for most office towers in the area.

However, mixed-use towers with public space were exempt from the height limit. The Trump Organization built a five-story, 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m 2) atrium, which was legally designated a “public space” according to city code, in exchange for permission to add twenty stories to the planned tower.

The Trump Organization also constructed terraces on the building's setbacks, as well as a pedestrian arcade at ground level through the middle of the block, which connected to IBM's 590 Madison Avenue tower to the east. At the time, the building was the only skyscraper on Fifth Avenue with its own retail space.

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The base was to be made of limestone, while the building's elevators were to be in a separate glass structure outside the main tower. The final plan called for the building to contain 58 stories.

While creating the final design for Trumpeter, Scott studied the designs of other skyscrapers, almost all having a similar architectural form. To make Trumpeter stand out from the “boxy” International Style buildings being erected at the time, Scott designed the tower as a 28-faced edifice with an “inverted pyramid of cubes” at the base.

This design received mixed reviews from critics: although it was widely praised as creative, many reviewers also believed the tower could be covered in masonry to blend in with neighboring buildings, or that its height should be reduced for the same reason. The city ultimately accepted this design.

HRH Construction was hired as the contractor on Trumpeter. The company would go on to build many of Trump's other real-estate developments.

HRH hired several dozen subcontractors to work on different aspects of the building. Barbara Res, who had worked on some of Trump's other projects, was hired as the construction executive in October 1980.

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She had previously worked for HRH Construction during the building of the Citigroup Center and the Grand Hyatt. Res was the first woman assigned to oversee a major New York City construction site.

She was often ignored by subcontractors and suppliers who were new to the project, as they thought the person in charge of construction was a man. The head superintendent of the project was Anthony “Tony RAF” Rafaniello, who worked for HRH Construction.

He was in charge of coordinating construction based on the site's blueprints. Rafaniello was supported by five assistant superintendents, including Jeff Donor, who was one of the first “concrete supervisors” to be hired for the construction of a skyscraper.

After Rafaniello was hired for the Trumpeter project in September 1980, he spent a week planning a three-phase construction schedule. Once the subcontractors were hired, Rafaniello made sure they met once a week to ensure they were working on the same phase.

TrumpTower's proposed mixed-use status posed obstacles during construction since there were different regulations for residential, commercial, and retail spaces. Several prospective commercial and residential tenants requested custom-made features, including the installation of a swimming pool for one unit, and the removal of a wall with utilities inside it for another.

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In one case, Trump so hated the marble slabs at some of the tower's corners that he demanded they be removed completely, even at great cost; he eventually decided bronze panels should be placed over the marble, but Res later said she refused to buy them. Trumpeter was one of the first skyscrapers with a concrete frame, along with Chicago's One Magnificent Mile engineered by Failure Rahman Khan in 1983.

Concrete was more expensive in New York City than anywhere else in the United States, which raised the construction costs. Trumpeter was topped out by July 1982, two-and-a-half years after the start of construction.

Originally, it was estimated the tower would cost $100 million to build. The total cost ended up being approximately twice that; this included $125 million in actual construction costs and $75 million for other expenditures such as insurance.

Incidents Trumpeter had a low number of worker fatalities during construction. One worker died during the tower's excavation after a neighboring sidewalk collapsed.

Another incident occurred when the tower's 25th through 27th floors accidentally caught fire, slightly damaging a construction crane. Firefighters had to rescue the crane's operator.

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The fire delayed construction for two months. In May 1983, a glass windowpane fell from a crane installing windows on the tower, hitting two pedestrians.

One of them later died from a skull fracture. View of the atrium from its base Destruction of Bowie Teller Building features The art dealer Robert Miller owned a gallery across Fifth Avenue from the Bowie Teller Building.

When Miller heard the building was to be demolished, he contacted Penelope Hunter-Stiebel, a curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In December 1979, Steel and Trump agreed that the Art Deco limestone bas-relief sculptures of semi-nude goddesses on the Bowie Teller Building's facade, as well as the massive ornate 15 by 25 feet (4.6 by 7.6 m) grille above the store's entrance, would be removed and donated to the Metropolitan Museum.

Every week, the Trump Organization and Steel would meet to discuss the transport of the sculptures. However, Steel later said the Trump Organization never seemed to be able to agree on a specific date for their transport, and the organization had repeatedly dismissed her concerns about not having received the letter.

On April 16, 1980, the grille and sculptures were removed from the building. They were set to be transported to a junkyard and destroyed because, according to Trump, there were general hazard concerns, expense, and a possible 10-day construction delay due to the difficulty of removing them.

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Steel rode by taxicab to the building site and attempted to pay the workmen for the sculptures, but she was rebuffed. The workers in charge of demolition told her she could make an appointment to go see the sculptures, but they then canceled several appointments that Steel made.

Trump later acknowledged he had personally ordered the destruction of the sculptures and grille. Trump said these “so-called Art Deco sculptures, which were garbage by the way,” had been informally appraised by three different individuals as “not valuable,” and they had pegged the sculptures' value at $4,000 to $5,000.

Miller lamented that such things would “never be made again,” and Peter M. Warner, a researcher who worked across the street, called the destruction “regrettable.” However, Trump later said he used the notoriety of that act to advertise more residential units in the tower.

Unpaid laborers In 1983, a class-action lawsuit was filed against the Trump Organization concerning unpaid pension and medical obligations to labor unions whose members helped build the towers. Trump had paid $774,000 to a window-cleaning company that employed undocumented Polish immigrants during the renovation of an adjoining building.

According to the laborers, they were paid $4 an hour (equivalent to $10 in 2019) for 12-hour shifts, and were not told about asbestos in the under-construction structure. Trump testified in 1990 he was unaware that 200 undocumented Polish immigrants, some of whom lived at the site during the 1980 New York City transit strike, and worked round-the-clock shifts, were involved in the destruction of the Bowie Teller building and the Trumpeter project.

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Trump said he rarely visited the demolition site and never noticed the laborers, who were visually distinct for their lack of hard hats. A labor consultant and FBI informant testified that Trump was aware of the illegal workers' status.

Trump testified that he and an executive used the pseudonym John Baron in some of his business dealings, although Trump said he did not do so until years after Trumpeter was constructed. A labor lawyer testified that he was threatened over the phone with a $100 million lawsuit by a John Baron who supposedly worked for the Trump Organization.

Donald Trump later told a reporter, “Lots of people use pen names. After the laborers filed for a mechanic's lien over unpaid wages, they said a Trump Organization lawyer threatened to have the Immigration and Naturalization Service deport them.

A judge ruled in favor of the Polish laborers in 1991, saying the organization had to pay the workers. The contractor was ultimately ordered to pay the laborers $254,000.

The case went through several appeals by both sides and non-jury trials, and was reassigned to different judges several times. The original named plaintiff, plaintiffs' attorney, and two co-defendants, died during the litigation, leading Judge Kevin Duffy to compare it unfavorably to Charles Dickens fictional case Jaundice and Jaundice in June 1998, when he was assigned the case after the death of the previous presiding judge.

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The lawsuit was ultimately settled in 1999, with its records sealed. In November 2017, U.S. District Judge Loretta A. Presley ordered the settlement documents unsealed.

Construction was also halted twice because minority rights' groups protested outside the Trumpeter site to condemn the dearth of minority construction workers. Trump was also involved in a disagreement with Mayor Koch about whether the tower should get a tax exemption.

In 1985, Trump was one of the plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the state in the New York State Court of Appeals concerning the payment of a 10% state tax in the event that a real estate property is transacted for $1 million or more. The tax on Trumpeter was upheld in a 4-to-1 decision.

The City of New York granted Trump permission to build the top twenty stories of the building in exchange for operating the atrium as a city-administered, privately owned public space. In the lobby of the building are two Trump merchandise kiosks (one of which replaced a long public bench) operating out of compliance with city regulations.

The city issued a notice of violation in July 2015, demanding the bench be put back in place. Although the Trump Organization initially said the violation was without merit, a lawyer speaking for Trump's organization stated in January 2016 that the kiosks would be removed in two to four weeks, before an expected court ruling.

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Trump maintained to supply the building's concrete. According to former New York mobster Michael Frances, “the mob controlled all the concrete business in the city of New York,” and that while Trump was not “in bed with the mob ... he certainly had a deal with us.

Clock in front of TrumpTowerTrump bought full-page advertisements in multiple newspapers and magazines to advertise his new tower. The first tenants included Osprey and Ludwig Beck, who moved into the building before its planned opening in early 1983.

:196–197 The grand opening of the atrium and stores was held on February 14, 1983, with the apartments and offices following shortly afterwards. The tower's forty ground-level stores opened for business on November 30, 1983.

:117 By August 1983, the construction loan for TrumpTower's construction had been paid off using the $260 million revenue from the sale of 85% of the 263 condominium units. Ninety-one units, representing over a third of the tower's total housing stock, had sold for more than $1 million.

The first residents were set to begin moving in that month. Despite the destruction of the Bowie Teller store's building, the flagship store itself was able to keep operating at the site, having signed a lease for 80,000 square feet (7,400 m 2) within the lower-levels' shopping area.

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The controversy over the destruction of the Bowie Teller decorations had largely passed: in August 1983, one New York Times reporter wrote that “the only negative comments about Donald Trump these days are given off the record.” By then, there were forty high-end outfits that had opened stores in the tower.

These included Buccellati, Charles Jordan brands, MOND, and Film. :197 Trump said in 1985 that there were more than a hundred stores wanting to move into a space in the tower.

Around this time, he began describing the tower as “something of a New York landmark.” By 1986, between 15% and 20% of the tower's original stores had closed or moved to another location.

The commercial rents were the highest of any building along Fifth Avenue at the time, with retail space in the atrium costing $450 per square foot ($4,800/m 2) per year. One writer for Vanity Fair magazine noted that as tenants were evicted from the tower's atrium due to high rents, several of them sued the Trump Organization for issues such as overfilling and illegal lease termination.

The residential units were more successful, and 95% of the condominiums were sold in the first four months after it opened, despite their high prices. The tower attracted many rich and famous residents, including Johnny Carson, David Merrick, Sophia Loren, and Steven Spielberg.

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:197 In total, Trump received $300 million from the sale of the condominiums, which more than offset the $200 million cost of construction. :197 By 1991, Trump was involved in lawsuits against residents: in October of that year, he successfully sued actor Pia Zamora and her husband, businessman Muscular Rifles, to collect $1 million in unpaid rent.

The flagship Bowie Teller store remained as one of TrumpTower's retail offerings until March 1990, when its parent company declared bankruptcy and closed the Trumpeter location. In July of that year, Galleries Lafayette announced that it would sign a 25-year lease to move into the space previously occupied by Bowie Teller, a move that expanded its business to the United States while helping Trump pay off the debts incurred by the tower's construction and operation.

Galleries Lafayette announced that it would be closing the Trumpeter location in August 1994, less than three years after it opened, due to its inability to pay the $8 million annual rent and taxes. However, critics cited other factors, including the decision not to include merchandise from top French designers as the company's French locations had done.

The Galleries Lafayette store was replaced with a Nike town location. By this time, most of the high-end retailers had moved out of Trumpeter, having been replaced with more upper-middle-class outlets such as Coach and Donna & Burke.

The Nike town store still remained in the tower as of the 2016 election with a lease at that location until 2022. Nike also leased some space at 6 East 57th Street next to the tower, but in November 2016, it signed a $700 million contract for a new retail space a few blocks south, having intended to move out of 6 East 57th since 2013.

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During and after the election, there were petitions to relocate the Nike town store, created by advocacy organizations who opposed Trump's election. In 2006, Forbes magazine valued the 300,000 square feet (28,000 m 2) of office space at up to $318 million; the tower itself was valued at $288 million, since the Trump Organization had a $30 million mortgage on the property.

As of 2013 , that mortgage had risen to $100 million. News outlets reported in 2020 that Trump had taken a ten-year, $100 million mortgage loan on the building in 2012.

The valuation of the building rose from $490 million in 2014 to $600 million in 2015 due to increased rent payments by anchor store Gucci. This revaluation made the tower the single most expensive property under Trump's ownership.

In 2016, however, the tower's value dropped sharply from $630 million to $471 million, losing $159 million of valuation due to a 20% reduction in the tower's operating income and a further 8% decline in the overall value of real estate in Manhattan. Due to a $100 million debt incurred on Trumpeter, Forbes magazine calculated the tower's net worth at $371 million, excluding the Trumps' three-story penthouse, which has a net floor area of 10,996 square feet (1,021.6 m 2).

The New York Times reported in 2020 that rent from the building's commercial spaces had earned Trump $336 million from 2000 through the end of 2018, amounting to over $20 million per year in profits. Trumpeter has been criticized for being environmentally unfriendly, and has been described as one of the city's least energy-efficient buildings per square foot.

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In May 2019 it was reported that eight of Trump's buildings in New York City, including Trumpeter, failed to meet the city's 2030 carbon emission standards, which were implemented as part of the city's Green New Deal “. The city threatened to fine Trump Organization for each year the infractions went unfixed.

On August 9, 2016, a man posted a YouTube video where he said he was an independent researcher wishing to speak to Donald Trump ; the video went viral. The next day, a man, suspected to be the one who had posted the YouTube video, climbed the outside of Trumpeter from the 5th to the 21st floors.

He was aid climbing using industrial suction cups. During the incident, the police attempted to “safely isolate” the climber, breaking and removing windows to try to capture him.

After he had climbed for two hours and 45 minutes, the NYPD Emergency Service Units (EU) apprehended him at the 21st floor of the tower. The man identified himself as Stephen Rotate, a 20-year-old Virginia resident.

Rotate was arrested for endangerment and criminal trespassing and taken to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric evaluation. At around 5:30 p.m. (EDT) on April 7, 2018, a 4-alarm fire broke out in a condominium in the tower's 50th floor, killing a resident and injuring six firefighters; the apartment was almost entirely engulfed in flames by the time the New York City Fire Department (FD NY) arrived.

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In a Twitter post, Trump attributed the fire's limited damage to the building's design. The sole fatality was 67-year-old Todd Brassier, an art dealer known for his association with Andy Warhol, who had endured debilitating medical problems for several years.

Brassier's apartment, as well as the rest of the residential units in Trumpeter, did not contain sprinklers because the structure had been built before 1999, when the city passed a law requiring sprinklers in residential units; Trump had lobbied against the proposal. The FD NY later announced that the fire had been accidentally caused by power wires that had overheated.

The April 2018 fire followed a minor electrical fire at the tower earlier that year, which had injured three people. The Gucci store in Trumpeter is at the northeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 56th Street.

It is adjacent to the L. P. Hollander & Company Building to the north, the Berger Goodman Building to the northwest, the Crown Building to the west, 712 Fifth Avenue on the southwest, and 550 Madison Avenue to the southeast. On the sidewalk opposite the main entrance, there is a four-sided brown-and-beige clock, which was created by the Electric Time Company and is nearly 16 feet (4.9 m) tall.

A Tiffany & Co. store is next door in its own Art Deco building at 1 East 57th Street. Since the launch of Trump's presidential campaign in 2015, the number of visits to the tower had risen drastically, with many of the visitors being supporters of Trump's candidacy.

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The tower gained popularity among New York City tourists in 2016, especially after Trump was elected president. There are stores selling Trump merchandise in the atrium.

In 2017, the city ordered the removal of two unauthorized kiosks in Trumpeter selling Trump's merchandise. Zoomed-out view of the Gucci store, showing a security blockade over 56th StreetStreet closures were imposed along the east side of Fifth Avenue and on the north side of 56th Street, and NYPD officers started stopping and questioning pedestrians about their destinations.

The block of 56th Street between Fifth and Madison Avenues was closed completely to vehicular traffic, but the eastern part of the street, located west of Madison Avenue, was later reopened to allow local deliveries. Customers of the Gucci and Tiffany stores in TrumpTower's lobby were allowed to proceed, while other pedestrians were redirected to the opposite side of the street.

During presidential visits, dump trucks from the New York City Department of Sanitation were parked outside the tower to prevent car bombs. Fire protection was also provided for the tower whenever Trump visited it.

The press nicknamed the now-heavily secured building White House North, comparing it to the White House's West Wing. As a result of the heavy security, businesses around the tower saw decreased patronage due to less foot traffic in the heavily secured area.

Protests around the tower subsided after Trump's inauguration in January 2017, and by summer 2017, security measures around the tower had been loosened somewhat, owing to the fact that most of them were implemented only when Trump was actually in the tower. However, several businesses at the tower's base had closed by then because of a reduction in the number of customers.

The next day, NYPD detained another man who reportedly got angry after he wanted to meet Donald Trump at the tower, and threw a wine glass on the lobby floor. The 58-story Trumpeter is 664 feet (202 m) high, making it the 64th tallest building in New York City.

The top story is marked as “68” because, according to Trump, the five-story-tall public atrium occupied the height of ten ordinary stories. However, several Bloomberg L.P. writers later determined that Trump's calculations did not account for the fact the ceiling heights in Trumpeter were much taller than in comparable buildings, and the tower did not have any floors numbered 6–13.

According to one author, the building may have as few as 48 usable stories. The 28-sided structure, with a stepped facade, was intended to give the tower more window exposure.

Above the main entrance is a logo with 34-inch-high (86 cm) brass capital letters in Stymie Extra Bold font, which reads Trumpeter “. A concrete hat-truss at the top of the building, similar to one used in the Trump World Tower, ties exterior columns with the concrete core.

This hat-truss increases the effective dimensions of the core to that of the building allowing the building to resist the overturning of lateral forces such as those caused by wind, minor earthquakes, and other impacts perpendicular to the building's height. The tower is a reinforced concrete shear wall core structure.

At the time of its completion, it was the tallest structure of its type in the world. Trumpeter used 45,000 cubic yards (34,000 m 3) of concrete and 3,800 tons of steelwork.

Interior and public spaces The tower's public spaces are clad in 240 tons of Brescia Bernice, a pink white-veined marble. Four gold-painted elevators transport visitors from the lobby to higher floors; a dedicated elevator leads directly to the penthouse where the Trump family lives.

Mirrors and brass are used throughout the well-furnished apartments and the kitchens are outfitted with “standard suburban” cabinets. The building has thirteen office floors on levels 14 to 26, then another 39 condominium floors containing 263 condominiums on levels 30–68.

Many of the apartments are furnished, but some upper-floor commercial spaces come unfurnished. The design extends to the office lobby, located off Fifth Avenue, and the five-level atrium, which features a 60-foot-high (18 m) internal waterfall along the eastern wall that is spanned by a suspended walkway, shops, and cafés.

The atrium, legally a privately operated public space (POPS), :141 is bedecked in marble, which has been described as “rosy and yellow,” and is crowned with a skylight. The atrium was originally supposed to be furnished with multiple 40-foot (12 m), 3,000-pound (1,400 kg) trees, which were transported at a cost of $75,000, but Trump, who supposedly did not like how the trees looked, personally cut them down after impatiently waiting for contractors to painstakingly remove them via a tunnel.

The atrium comprises the northern part of a two-block pedestrian plaza between Fifth and Madison Avenues, connecting to the atrium at 550 Madison Avenue (then the AT&T Building) to the south. The tower has two outdoor terraces as part of Trump's agreement with the city during construction.

There is a terrace on the fifth floor on the northern (57th Street) side of the building, with a smaller fourth-floor terrace on the southern (56th Street) side. There is also a passageway to a glass-roofed POPS at 590 Madison Avenue.

Of these, Trump Bar is the only establishment at the atrium level; the other three are in the basement. Trump Grill was generally panned as gaudy-looking and the food bland-tasting.

New York magazine wrote that “despite what the sign reads, countless restaurants trump this spot.” In December 2016, Yelp reviews of Trump Grill averaged two-and-a-half out of five stars, while Google reviews averaged three of five stars.

Health inspections in 2018 reported “evidence of mice or live mice” in and around the kitchen, according to records obtained by the New York Daily News, in violations the inspectors called “critical”. Eater reviewed the three other establishments as well, finding them to be commonplace compared to TrumpTower's stature.

Vice magazine also reviewed the bar and found it to be overpriced, with “a strong pour of watered-down vodka and a few Manzanillo olives” costing twenty dollars. New York magazine, reviewing the café, found the food to be “safe classics” that contrasted with the café's grandeur.

The NBC television show The Apprentice was filmed in Trumpeter, on the fifth floor, in a fully functional television studio. The set of The Apprentice included the famous boardroom, which was prominently featured in the television show, where at least one person was fired at the end of each episode.

Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., founded in 2015, is headquartered within part of the space where The Apprentice was filmed; unlike the former boardroom, the headquarters is unfurnished, with some offices containing “only drywall and no door”. After Trump's successful election in 2016, he indicated that Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., would remain in Trumpeter to organize his 2020 re-election campaign.

Donald Trump, his wife Melania, and their son Barron maintain a three-story residence on the penthouse floors. Until 2017, the tower was their main residence, among the family's other homes at Mar-A-Lago in Florida; Seven Springs in Bedford, New York ; and part of an estate in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Since January 2017, Trump lives primarily at the White House. Melania and Barron lived in Trumpeter until June 2017, when they moved into the White House.

Barron is reported to live on his own floor. In a 1984 article in GQ magazine, Trump's then-wife Ivana said the first floor of the penthouse had the living, dining, and entertainment rooms and kitchen; the second had a balcony over the living room as well as their bedrooms and bathrooms; and the third contained bedrooms for the children, maids, and guests.

Angelo Songhai provided the original black-and-white, brass-and-mahogany design for the penthouse, which was later replaced with a gold-and-Greek-column design after Trump reportedly saw the more lavish house of Saudi businessman Adnan Khashoggi. Noted soccer organizations and players have rented space or lived in Trumpeter.

Contact, the governing body of association football in North and Central America and the Caribbean, occupies the entire 17th floor. Chuck Blazer, the former president of Contact, used to live in two apartments on the 49th floor.

The apartments and office space were described as part of an “extravagant” lifestyle that ultimately resulted in Blazer being apprehended and becoming an FBI informant in a corruption investigation against association soccer organizations worldwide, including Contact and FIFA. Another noted soccer figure living in Trumpeter is José Maria Marin, former president of the Brazilian Football Confederation, who is currently under house arrest in his apartment for FIFA-related corruption charges.

As well, Portuguese footballer Cristiano Ronaldo bought an $18.5 million apartment in the tower in August 2015 and planned to buy another $23 million apartment in 2016. Other residents include filmmaker Vincent Gallo, art dealer Hillel “Hello” Ahmad, who bought a second apartment in the tower in July 2010; pharmaceutical entrepreneur Stewart Ruhr, who has a corporate space on the 24th floor; Juan Beckman Vidal, the owner of tequila brand Jose Curve ; Prince Duties bin Abdulaziz Al Said of Saudi Arabia, who reportedly lives on an entire floor in the tower ; and actor Bruce Willis, who bought a $4.26 million apartments in 2007.

Additionally, Qatar Airways, owned by the Qatari government, has had a corporate campus in the tower since at least 2008, a fact that news media outlets noted when one of Trump's executive orders, EO 13769, banned immigration from seven majority-Muslim Middle Eastern countries, but not from Qatar. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China has rented the 20th floor of Trumpeter since 2008, for approximately $2 million a year.

Past tenants include Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, the ex-president of Haiti who died in 2014, who was discovered to have lived in a $2million apartment on the 54th floor in 1989, when public records in Haiti showed that he had forgotten to pay his bills. The singer Michael Jackson rented an apartment on the 63rd floor during the 1990s.

The composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, known for musicals such as Cats, moved out of his 59th and 60th floor apartment in 2010 after 17 years of stating his intention to do so. Carlos Penalty, a billionaire businessman from Mexico, sold an apartment in Trumpeter in 2009 for $13.5 million.

Former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort, who lived in the tower when he was Trump's campaign manager, agreed to forfeit his Trumpeter condo in September 2018, as part of a plea deal made during the Special Counsel investigation of Russian ties to the 2016 election. In addition, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.'s headquarters were on the fifth floor.

Trump's parents, Fred and Mary, had a second home on the 63rd floor they sometimes used when visiting Manhattan. In February 2017, the United States Department of Defense announced it was looking to lease space in Trumpeter, to house “personnel and equipment” dedicated to protecting President Trump.

This followed precedents where the DOD bought space in other presidents' properties, but the difference in this case was that the DOD's plan would directly profit Trump's business holdings. Later that month, a controversial Indigo campaign launched to house refugees in Trumpeter in response to EO 13769, which barred nationals of several majority-Muslim countries from entering the United States before being superseded by EO 13780.

The waterfall in the atrium, described as gaudy by a Fromm er's review Odor's New York City 2010 described TrumpTower's “ostentatious atrium” as an example of the “unbridled luxury” of the 1980s, characterized by “expensive boutiques and gaudy brass everywhere.” :123 The tower's public atrium, along with that of Citigroup Center a few blocks away, was described as a convenient public area.

Fromm er's called the tower a “bold and brassy place” whose golden sign “practically screams 'Look at me! '”, with more evidence of the tower's gaudiness provided by its spacious atrium, pink-marble waterfall, and interior mall.

Meanwhile, Insight Guides 2016 edition recommended Trumpeter as an example of the “opulence synonymous with Manhattan in the 1980s.” The tower's atrium and waterfall was described as distinguishable for those who watched The Apprentice.

However, she reversed her opinion on the opening of the atrium, saying the tower was really a “monumentally undistinguished one” and saying her earlier comments had been taken out of context. Suitable also called the atrium a “pink-marble maelstrom” and publicly requested in one of her editorials that Trump remove one of her quotes from his building's lobby.

By contrast, a review from 1983 had predicted it could be New York City's “most pleasant interior public space” to be built in recent history. The fifth edition of the Air Guide to New York City, published in 2010, described Trumpeter as a “fantasy land for the affluent shopper” hidden by “folded glass,” with the Trump theme evident throughout the building.

Comparing the building's interior design to alcoholic drink brands, the authors wrote that the design was less like a high-end Verve Liquor and more like a generic malt liquor.” Trumpeter served as the location for Wayne Enterprises in Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Rises.

Trump's lost Empire: The deal that marked the Donald's turn from New York real estate”. ^ a b “Zoning Change Opposed For Tower at Bowie Site”.

Trump Tower : Concrete Satisfies Architectural, design, and construction demands”. “Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers: from In galls to Jin Mao”.

^ Suitable, Ada Louise (July 1, 1979). Trump's Female Tower Boss Talks About His Half-Billion Dollar Debt, Womanizing, and How He Learned to be Shameless”.

(July 2013) All Alone on the 68th Floor: How one Woman Changed the Face of Construction. “2 HURT AS GLASS FALLS FROM HOIST AT TRUMP TOWER ".

Trump Revealed: An American Journey of Ambition, Ego, Money, and Power. ^ “Developer Scraps Bowie Sculptures; Builder Orders Bowie Art Deco Sculptures Destroyed” (PDF).

^ “Topics Crumbling Patrimony; Mr. Trump's Jackhammer Days Beyond Father's”. “Developer Scraps Bowie Sculptures; Builder Orders Bowie Art Deco Sculptures Destroyed”.

“After 15 Years in Court, Workers' Lawsuit Against Trump Faces Yet Another Delay”. Trump Paid Over $1 Million in Labor Settlement, Documents Reveal”.

Trump Says He Didn't Know He Employed Undocumented immigrants”. Trump Tower Was Built On Undocumented Workers' Backs”.

“Judge Says Trump Tower Builders Cheated Union on Pension Funds”. ^ Donovan v. Kaczyski & Sons Contractors, Inc., 599 F. Supp.

1984) (“The Court finds in favor of plaintiff on all claims and orders as follows: (1) defendants are hereby ordered to pay to plaintiff, for the benefit of the employees listed in Appendix A, $254,523.59 in unpaid wages and overtime compensation, and $254,523.59 as liquidated damages; and (2) defendants are hereby enjoined from future violations of 29 U.S.C. “After 15 Years in Court, Workers' Lawsuit Against Trump Faces Yet Another Delay”.

^ See: Reversing summary judgment to defendant: Di duck v. Kaczyski & Sons Contractors, Inc., 874 F.2d 912 (2nd Cir. 1989) (“Surmise, conjecture and conclusion allegations are not enough; plaintiff must make an affirmative showing that his version of events is not fanciful.

United States v. Potemkin Cadillac Corp., 689 F.2d 379, 381 (2d Cir.1982). Insofar as the T-E defendants are concerned, plaintiff has failed to satisfy this burden.”).

Granting judgment to plaintiffs: Di duck v. Kaczyski & Sons Contractors, Inc., 774 F. Supp. 1991) (“In sum, plaintiff is awarded the following: 1) unpaid contributions in the amount of $325,415.84; 2) interest from April 1, 1980, calculated at the rate of interest set by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to 26 U.S.C.

Partially reversing judgment to plaintiffs: Di duck v. Kaczyski & Sons Contractors, Inc., 974 F.2d 270 (2nd Cir. 1992) (“I respectfully dissent from the remand of the claims against Senyshyn for breach of fiduciary duty and against Trump for participation in that breach.

^ a b “The Other Time Trump Was Huge: Newsweek's 1987 Look at the Presidential Candidate”. ^ Trump ruling to cost NYC $22M in taxes” (PDF).

Trump and New York City Spar Over Access to Tower Lobby”. Trump Tower to Remove Disputed Kiosks From Public Atrium”.

“Inside Donald Trump's Empire: Why He Didn't Run for President in 2012”. “Osprey PLANS TO OPEN A 5TH AVE. STOREFRONT”.

^ “A bigger Nike town: The Trump Organization said Tuesday it ...” Chicago Tribune. “Commercial Property/ Trump Tower ; New Tenant Mix, New Image and New Revenues”.

^ Bronze, Kathryn; Pincus, Adam (November 30, 2016). “Nike signs one of NYC's most expensive retail leases ever at 650 Fifth”.

“Nike Should Remove Flagship Store From Trump Tower, Petition Says”. “Donald Trump Has At Least $1 Billion In Debt, More Than Twice The Amount He Suggested”.

^ Trump Tower Remains Its Namesake's No. ^ a b c d e f g Abelson, Max; Trucker, Jesse; Wider, Zachary R. (October 25, 2016).

“Inside Trump Tower, the Center of the Billionaire's Universe”. “Donald Trump's Fortune Falls $800 Million To $3.7 Billion”.

^ In chronological order, the tweets are: ^ * Johnston, Chris (March 4, 2017). “ ': Trump accuses Obama of 'wire-tapping' his office before election”.

^ “Obama Spokesman Says President Trump's Wiretapping Claim Is 'Simply False “. ^ * “Coma: 'no information' to back Trump's claim Obama wiretapped him”.

“Donald Trump's Fake Renoir: The Untold Story”. “Donald Trump Insisted He Owns A Renoir That's Hung In Chicago Museum Since 1933”.

“Chicago Museum: Renoir Painting at Trump Tower Not Real”. Trump buildings could be forced to go green under sweeping New York City climate bill”.

New York Mayor Threatens to Fine Trump Organization Over Pollution”. Trump buildings face millions in climate fines under new York rules”.

^ Message to Mr. Trump (why I climbed your tower) on YouTube ^ Ha, Thu-Huong (August 10, 2016). ^ Shear, Adam; Simon, Laura (August 10, 2016).

“WATCH LIVE: Donald supporter scales Trump Tower with suction cups”. ^ Killed, Ray; Dies, Jonathan (August 10, 2016).

“WATCH: Man Trying to Scale Trump Tower, Cops Await”. Trump Tower Climber Stephen Rotate Captured By NYPD After Reaching 21st Floor”.

Trump Tower Climber Now Faces Charges”. “Fire at Trump Tower leaves 1 civilian dead, 6 firefighters with minor injuries”.

^ a b Paper, Jaclyn; Cicero II, Louis (April 7, 2018). “Fire at Trump Tower Critically Injures One, Officials Say”.

“Art Collector and Bon Vivant Dies in Trump Tower Home He Couldn't Sell”. Trump Tower Fire Death Update: Trump Lobbied Against Proposal to Make Sprinklers Mandatory”.

New York City paints Black Lives Matter mural in front of Trump Tower ". ^ Gold, Michael; Sputnik, Daniel E. (July 9, 2021).

Paints 'Black Lives Matter' in Front of Trump Tower ". ' Black Lives Matter' Will Be Painted on Street Outside Trump Tower ".

New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications. New York's Sidewalks, Unsung Moneymakers”.

“Secrets of Tiffany's: The Trump connection, more”. “In Manhattan, Largely Blue, One Bright Spot and a Tie for Romney”.

^ “MAP: The New York Primary by NYC Neighborhood”. “How Every New York Neighborhood Voted in the 2016 Presidential Election”.

“We visited Trump Tower, and it perfectly epitomizes its eccentric, contradictory owner”. “NYC tourists flocking to Trump Tower ".

“How Donald Trump will retrofit Midtown Manhattan as a presidential getaway”. ^ Medina, Eli Rosenberg, Jennifer; Religion, John (November 12, 2016).

“Protesters Take Anti- Trump Message to His Doorstep, and Plan Next Steps”. ^ “The FAA will limit flights over New York until Trump is sworn in”.

“Businesses Near Trump Tower Say Security Is Stealing Their Christmas”. “Why Trump Tower is surrounded by dump trucks filled with sand for Trump's visit to NYC”.

^ Aguirre, Anthony; Cayman, Graham (December 8, 2016). “Increased Trump Tower security is hurting local businesses”.

^ a b NIR, Sarah Marlin; Alan, Hannah (June 21, 2017). “With First Family in Washington, Midtown Tries to Recover”.

^ “Woman Slips By Security at Trump Tower, Gets to 24th Floor”. “Student Arrested, Accused Of Trying To Bring Weapons Into Trump Tower ".

^ “Student Arrested at Trump Tower With Weapons, Water Gun”. ^ “N.J. man reportedly angry over not meeting president-elect arrested at Trump Tower ".

^ “Man with fake ID smashes wine glass in Trump Tower temper tantrum”. Commander in Cheat: How Golf Explains Trump.

^ Trump Tower, Her Scott | New York | United States | Mimosa”. “A Look Inside Donald Trump's Campaign Headquarters”.

“We visited Trump Tower, and it perfectly epitomizes its eccentric, contradictory owner”. “VERTICAL MALLS: CITY SIDEWALKS MOVE INDOORS”.

“Donald Trump has a secret garden”. ^ a b “The Privately Owned Public Space Inside Trump Tower is Already Less Accessible”.

^ Flegenheimer, Matt; Haber man, Maggie (March 29, 2016). “With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home”.

“Donald Trump's 1985 Apartment Looks Exactly How You'd Imagine It”. “Ex-FIFA official had $6,000-a-month Trump Tower apartment for unruly cats”.

^ Thompson, Teri; Paperless, Mary; Red, Christian; Hinton, Nathaniel (November 1, 2014). “How ex-U.S. soccer exec Chuck Blazer became an FBI informant”.

“Cristiano Ronaldo buying loft in Trump Tower ". “Take a tour of Cristiano Ronaldo's $18.5 million apartment in Trump Tower ".

^ “See inside the $23m New York apartment interesting Cristiano Ronaldo”. ^ “Actor Vincent Gallo in contract for Trump Tower condo”.

Art Dealer Expands in Trump Tower ; Vanity Fair Articles Editor Buys in Chelsea”. ^ Stein, Joshua David (June 6, 2014).

“Bruce Willis Buys $4.26 M. Spread From Trump Foe”. “President Trump's travel ban will leave his business partners untouched”.

“Will Trump side with U.S. airlines against Middle Eastern rivals?” “As tariffs near, Trump's business empire retains ties to China”.

The Trumps are the landlord to one of China's top state-owned banks, which has occupied the 20th floor of Trump Tower in Manhattan since 2008. The bank's lease is worth close to $2 million annually, according to industry estimates and a bank filing.

Woodruff, Betsy; MAK, Tim (September 30, 2015). “ “THE LAW: AT THE BAR; Law firm, in pursuit of Haitian property, finds the chase can be tedious and frustrating”.

“You Can Live Beneath Donald Trump for Only $23 Million”. “Andrew Lloyd Webber Finally Bows Out of Trump Tower ".

“Carlos Penalty's Trump Tower Condo (With Jacuzzi in the Bedroom) Yours for $13.5 M.” Observer. ^ “Paul Manafort to hand over Trump Tower condo, house in Hampton's in plea deal”.

“Brooklyn man campaigns to house Muslim refugees in Trump Tower ". “As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself”.

“As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself”. ^ a b “Living Large in New York City: The High Life in 8 Sights”.

“ARCHITECTURE VIEW; THIS WILL BE THE YEAR OF THE SKYSCRAPER”. “ARCHITECTURE: ATRIUM OF TRUMP TOWER IS A PLEASANT SURPRISE”.

New York : Oxford University Press. ^ “Filming Locations for Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Rises (2012), with Christian Bale, in New York, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, the UK and India”.

^ “Did Trump, Known 'Dark Knight Rises' Fanboy, Channel Bane in His Inauguration Speech?” “The 25 Best Cold-Open Action Scenes in Film History”.

“The Incredibly Sexist Book Once Billed As Trump's 'Debut Novel “. “Ranking The Grand Theft Auto Games, From Worst To Best”.

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