The Detroit Post
Monday, 29 November, 2021

Is Trump The 45th President

Ava Flores
• Thursday, 31 December, 2020
• 90 min read

Born and raised in Queens, New York City, Trump attended Fordham University for two years and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He became president of his father Fred Trump's real estate business in 1971, where he renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded its operations to building or renovating skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses.

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Trump and his businesses have been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, including six bankruptcies. He owned the Miss Universe brand of beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and produced and hosted the reality television series The Apprentice from 2004 to 2015.

During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, rescinding the individual health insurance mandate penalty of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), but has failed to repeal and replace the ACA as a whole.

He appointed Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh and Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court. In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMC) and withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal.

He imposed import tariffs which triggered a trade war with China, moved the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, and. He met three times with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, but talks on denuclearization broke down in 2019.

He reacted slowly to the COVID-19 pandemic, downplayed the threat, ignored or contradicted many recommendations from health officials, and promoted false information about unproven treatments and the availability of testing. Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City.

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His father was Frederick Christ Trump, a Bronx-born real estate developer whose parents were German immigrants. His mother was Scottish-born housewife Mary Anne MacLeod Trump.

Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens and attended the Reforest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school.

Two years later he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in May 1968 with a B.S. The New York Times reported in 1973 and 1976 that he had graduated first in his class at Wharton, but he had never made the school's honor roll.

In 2015, Trump's lawyer Michael Cohen threatened Fordham University and the New York Military Academy with legal action if they released Trump's academic records. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination, and in July 1968 a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve.

In October 1968, he was medically deferred and classified 1-Y (unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency). In 1972, he was reclassified 4-F due to bone spurs, which permanently disqualified him from service.

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Parents and siblings Fred Trump started working in real estate with his mother Elizabeth when he was 15, after his father Friedrich had died in the 1918 flu pandemic. By 1926, their company, E. Trump & Son “, was active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.

It would grow to build and sell tens of thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments. Fred claimed to be Swedish amid the anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II; Trump also claimed Swedish heritage until 1990.

Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Scotland. Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.

The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples. Maples and Trump married in 1993 and had one daughter, Tiffany (born 1993).

In 2005, Trump married Slovenian model Melania Klaus. Trump went to Sunday school and was confirmed in 1959 at the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens.

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In November 2019, Trump appointed his personal pastor, televangelist Paula White, to the White House Office of Public Liaison. Trump has called golfing his “primary form of exercise” but usually does not walk the course.

He considers exercise a waste of energy, because he believes the body is “like a battery, with a finite amount of energy” which is depleted by exercise. In 1982, Trump was listed on the initial Forbes list of wealthy individuals as having a share of his family's estimated $200 million net worth.

His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995. In its 2020 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $2.1 billion (1,001st in the world, 275th in the U.S.), making him one of the richest politicians in American history and the first billionaire American president.

Forbes estimated that his net worth declined 31% and his ranking fell 138 spots between 2015 and 2018. When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however, FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth over $50 million, yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million.

Journalist Jonathan Greenberg reported in 2018 that Trump, using the pseudonym John Barron and claiming to be a Trump Organization official, called him in 1984 to falsely assert that he owned “in excess of ninety percent” of the Trump family's business, to secure a higher ranking on the Forbes 400 list of wealthy Americans. Trump has often said he began his career with “a small loan of one million dollars” from his father, and that he had to pay it back with interest.

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In October 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump “was a millionaire by age 8”, borrowed at least $60 million from his father, largely failed to reimburse him, and had received $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father's business empire over his lifetime. Forbes estimated in October 2018 that the value of Trump's personal brand licensing business had declined by 88% since 2015, to $3 million.

According to a September 2020 analysis by The New York Times of twenty years of data from Trump's tax returns, Trump had accumulated hundreds of millions in losses, and deferred declaring $287 million in forgiven debt as taxable income. According to the analysis, Trump's main sources of income were his share of revenue from The Apprentice and income from businesses in which he was a minority partner, while his majority-owned businesses were largely running at losses.

A significant portion of Trump's income was in tax credits due to his losses, which enables him to avoid paying income tax, or paying as little as $750, for several years. Over the past decade, Trump has been balancing his businesses' losses by selling and taking out loans against assets, including a $100 million mortgage on Trump Tower (due in 2022) and the liquidation of over $200 million in stocks and bonds.

Trump has personally guaranteed $421 million in debt, most of which is due to be repaid by 2024. The tax records also showed Trump had unsuccessfully pursued business deals in China, including by developing a partnership with a major government-controlled company.

Trump has a total of over $1 billion in debts, borrowed to finance his assets, reported Forbes in October 2020. However, Trump's assets still out value his debts, reported Forbes.

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While a student at Wharton and after graduating in 1968, Trump worked at his father Fred's real estate company, Trump Management, which owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs. In 1971, he became president of the company and began using The Trump Organization as an umbrella brand.

Manhattan developments Trump attracted public attention in 1978 with the launch of his family's first Manhattan venture, the renovation of the derelict Commodore Hotel, adjacent to Grand Central Terminal. The financing was facilitated by a $400 million city property tax abatement arranged by Fred Trump, who also joined Hyatt in guaranteeing $70 million in bank construction financing.

The hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel, and that same year, Trump obtained rights to develop Trump Tower, a mixed-use skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan. In 1988, Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan with a loan of $425 million from a consortium of banks.

Two years later, the hotel filed for bankruptcy protection, and a reorganization plan was approved in 1992. In 1995, Trump lost the hotel to Citibank and investors from Singapore and Saudi Arabia, who assumed $300 million of the debt.

In 1996, Trump acquired a vacant 71-story skyscraper at 40 Wall Street. In the early 1990s, Trump won the right to develop a 70-acre (28 ha) tract in the Lincoln Square neighborhood near the Hudson River.

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Struggling with debt from other ventures in 1994, Trump sold most of his interest in the project to Asian investors who were able to finance completion of the project, Riverside South. Trump used a wing of the estate as a home, while converting the remainder into a private club with an initiation fee and annual dues.

Atlantic City casinos In 1984, Trump opened Hurrah's at Trump Plaza, a hotel and casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The project received financing from the Holiday Corporation, which also managed the operation.

The property's poor financial results worsened tensions between Holiday and Trump, who paid Holiday $70 million in May 1986 to take sole control of the property. Earlier, Trump had also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million.

Upon its completion in 1985, that hotel and casino were called Trump Castle. It was financed with $675 million in junk bonds and completed at a cost of $1.1 billion, opening in April 1990.

The project went bankrupt the following year, and the reorganization left Trump with only half his initial ownership stake and required him to pledge personal guarantees of future performance. Facing “enormous debt”, he gave up control of his money-losing airline, Trump Shuttle, and sold his mega yacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.

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Thor purchased the Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent successive bankruptcies in 2004, 2009, and 2014, leaving Trump with only ten percent ownership. It owned 16 golf courses and resorts worldwide and operated another two as of December 2016 .

From his inauguration until the end of 2019, Trump spent around one of every five days at one of his golf clubs. The Trump name has been licensed for various consumer products and services, including foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings.

According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than fifty licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies. By 2018, only two consumer goods companies continued to license his name.

Fixer Roy Cohn served as Trump's lawyer and mentor for 13 years in the 1970s and 1980s. According to Trump, Cohn sometimes waived fees due to their friendship.

In 1973, Cohn helped Trump counter sue the United States government for $100 million over its charges that Trump's properties had racial discriminatory practices. In 1975 an agreement was struck requiring Trump's properties to furnish the New York Urban League with a list of all apartment vacancies, every week, for two years, among other things.

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Cohn introduced political consultant Roger Stone to Trump, who enlisted Stone's services to deal with the federal government. As of April 2018 , Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today.

While Trump has not filed for personal bankruptcy, his over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection six times between 1991 and 2009. They continued to operate while the banks restructured debt and reduced Trump's shares in the properties.

In April 2019, the House Oversight Committee issued subpoenas seeking financial details from Trump's banks, Deutsche Bank and Capital One, and his accounting firm, Majors USA. In response, Trump sued the banks, Majors, and committee chairman Elijah Cummings to prevent the disclosures.

In May, DC District Court judge Amit Meta ruled that Majors must comply with the subpoena, and judge Edgardo Ramos of the Southern District Court of New York ruled that the banks must also comply. Trump's attorneys appealed the rulings, arguing that Congress was attempting to usurp the “exercise of law-enforcement authority that the Constitution reserves to the executive branch”.

In the late 1980s, Trump mimicked the actions of Wall Street's so-called corporate raiders, whose tactics had attracted wide public attention. Trump began to purchase significant blocks of shares in various public companies, leading some observers to think he was engaged in the practice called greenmail, or feigning the intent to acquire the companies and then pressuring management to repurchase the buyer's stake at a premium.

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The New York Times found that Trump initially made millions of dollars in such stock transactions, but later “lost most, if not all, of those gains after investors stopped taking his takeover talk seriously”. In 1988, Trump purchased the defunct Eastern Air Lines shuttle, with 21 planes and landing rights in New York City, Boston, and Washington, D.C.

Trump failed to earn a profit with the airline and sold it to Air. In 1992, Trump, his siblings Maryanne, Elizabeth, and Robert, and cousin John W. Walter, each with a 20 percent share, formed All County Building Supply & Maintenance Corp.

The company had no offices and is alleged to have been a shell company for paying the vendors providing services and supplies for Trump's rental units, and then billing those services and supplies to Trump Management with markups of 20–50 percent and more. The proceeds generated by the markups were shared by the owners.

After New York State authorities notified the company that its use of the word “university” violated state law, its name was changed to Trump Entrepreneur Initiative in 2010. In 2013, the State of New York filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers.

In addition, two class actions were filed in federal court against Trump and his companies. Internal documents revealed that employees were instructed to use a hard-sell approach, and former employees testified that Trump University had defrauded or lied to its students.

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Shortly after he won the presidency, Trump agreed to pay a total of $25 million to settle the three cases. The foundation gave to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups.

In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion. Trump's team announced in December 2016 that the foundation would be dissolved.

In June 2018 the New York attorney general's office filed a civil suit against the foundation, Trump, and his adult children, seeking $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties. In December 2018, the foundation ceased operation and disbursed all its assets to other charities.

In November 2019, a New York state judge ordered Trump to pay $2 million to a group of charities for misusing the foundation's funds, in part to finance his presidential campaign. According to ethics experts, this measure did not help avoid conflicts of interest, because Trump continued to profit from his businesses.

Though Trump said he would eschew “new foreign deals”, the Trump Organization pursued expansions of its operations in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic. Pending lawsuits allege that Trump is violating the Domestic and Foreign Emoluments Clauses of the U.S. Constitution.

The plaintiffs say that Trump's business interests could allow foreign governments to influence him. NBC News reported in 2019 that representatives of at least 22 foreign governments, including some facing charges of corruption or human rights abuses, appeared to have spent money at Trump Organization businesses during his presidency.

As president, Trump mocked the Emoluments Clause as “phony”. Trump has written up to 19 books on business, financial, or political topics, though he has employed ghostwriters to actually write them.

Trump's first book, The Art of the Deal (1987), was a New York Times Best Seller. While Trump was credited as co-author, the entire book was ghostwritten by Tony Schwartz.

According to The New Yorker, “The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful deal maker and tycoon.” Trump has called the book his second favorite, after the Bible.

From 2011 until 2015, he was a weekly unpaid guest commentator on Fox & Friends. Trump's political party affiliation changed numerous times.

In 1987, Trump placed full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, advocating peace in Central America, accelerated nuclear disarmament talks with the Soviet Union, and reduction of the federal budget deficit by making American allies pay “their fair share” for military defense. 2000 presidential campaign Trump ran in the California and Michigan primaries for nomination as the Reform Party candidate for the 2000 presidential election but withdrew from the race in February 2000.

A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support. Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump “accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world” after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in April 2011.

In 2011, the superintendent of the New York Military Academy at the time, Jeffrey Cover dale, ordered the headmaster of the school, Evan Jones, to give him Trump's academic records, so he could keep them secret, according to Jones. Cover dale confirmed that he had been asked to hand the records over to members of the school's board of trustees who were Trump's friends, but he refused to and instead sealed them on campus.

The incident reportedly happened days after Trump demanded the release of Obama's academic records. He railed against illegal immigration, bemoaned Obama's “unprecedented media protection”, advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested the government “take” Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers.

In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting that Trump run for governor in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship.

A poll showed Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election. Trump's attorney Michael Cohen said that he sent letters to the New York Military Academy and Fordham in May 2015, threatening legal action if the schools ever released Trump's grades or SAT scores.

Fordham confirmed receipt of the letter as well as a phone call from a member of the Trump team. Republican primaries On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States.

General election campaign On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana governor Mike Pence as his vice presidential running mate. Trump and Clinton faced off in three presidential debates in September and October 2016.

Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy. Political positions Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border.

His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

During the campaign Trump repeatedly called NATO “obsolete”. He supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time.

Trump adopted the phrase “truthful hyperbole”, coined by his ghostwriter Tony Schwartz, to describe his public speaking style. Support from the far right According to Michael Backup, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream.

During his presidential campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists. He retweeted open racists, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying he would first need to “do research” because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists.

Duke himself enthusiastically supported Trump throughout the 2016 primary and election, and has said he and like-minded people voted for Trump because of his promises to “take our country back”. After repeated questioning by reporters, Trump said he disavowed Duke and the Klan.

Financial disclosures As a candidate, Trump's FEC-required reports listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $315 million. Trump has not released his tax returns, contrary to the practice of every major candidate since 1976 and his promises in 2014 and 2015 to do so if he ran for office.

He said his tax returns were being audited (in actuality, audits do not prevent release of tax returns), and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them. In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times.

During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied. On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MSNBC.

Election to the presidency On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides.

Trump's support had been modestly underestimated, while Clinton's had been overestimated. The polls were relatively accurate, but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite many undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states.

Protests Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017, a day after Trump's inaugurations rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, both inside and outside the venues. Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements.

Trump initially tweeted that these were “professional protesters, incited by the media” and “unfair”, but later “Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country.” In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti- Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women's Marches, which gathered 2.6 million people worldwide, including 500,000 in Washington alone.

Marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just nine days after his inauguration. Throughout his presidency, Trump mischaracterized the economy as the best in American history.

Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017 Trump is a skeptic of multilateral trade agreements, believing they incentivize unfair commercial practices, favoring bilateral trade agreements, as they allow one party to withdraw if the other party is believed to be behaving unfairly. Trump adopted his current skepticism of trade liberalization in the 1980s, and sharply criticized NAFTA during the Republican primary campaign in 2015.

He withdrew the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations, imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum imports, and launched a trade war with China by sharply increasing tariffs on 818 categories (worth $50 billion) of Chinese goods imported into the U.S. On several occasions, Trump has said incorrectly that these import tariffs are paid by China into the U.S. Treasury. Although Trump pledged during his 2016 campaign to significantly reduce the U.S.'s large trade deficits, the U.S. trade deficit reached its highest level in 12 years under his administration.

Following a 2017–2018 renegotiation, Trump signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMC) as the successor to NAFTA on January 29, 2021. Despite a campaign promise to eliminate the national debt in eight years, Trump as president has approved large increases in government spending, as well as the 2017 tax cut.

As a result, the American government's budget deficit has increased by almost 50%, to nearly $1trillion in 2019. In April 2020, the official unemployment rate rose to 14.7% due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Analysis published by The Wall Street Journal in October 2020 found the trade war Trump initiated in early 2018 did not achieve the primary objective of reviving American manufacturing, nor did it result in the restoring of factory production. Energy and climate Trump has rolled back federal regulations aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, water pollution, and the usage of toxic substances.

He relaxed environmental standards for federal infrastructure projects, while expanding permitted areas for drilling and resource extraction, such as allowing drilling in the Arctic Refuge. Trump's energy policies aimed to boost the production and exports of coal, oil, and natural gas.

Deregulation During his presidency, Trump has dismantled many federal regulations on health, labor, and the environment, among other topics. Trump signed 15 Congressional Review Act resolutions repealing federal regulations, becoming the second president to sign a CRA resolution, and the first president to sign more than one CRA resolution.

During his first six weeks in office, he delayed, suspended or reversed ninety federal regulations. On January 30, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed that for every new regulation administrative agencies issue “at least two prior regulations be identified for elimination”.

Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups. In May 2017, the Republican-controlled House of Representatives passed a bill to repeal the ACA in a party-line vote, but repeal proposals were narrowly voted down in the Senate after three Republicans joined all Democrats in opposing it.

Trump favored modifying the 2016 Republican platform opposing abortion, to allow for exceptions in cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. In March 2017, the Trump administration rolled back key components of the Obama administration's workplace protections against discrimination of LGBT people.

Long favoring capital punishment, Trump approved the first federal execution in 17 years in July 2020. Five more federal prisoners were executed, making the total number of federal executions under Trump higher than all of his predecessors combined going back to 1963.

In 2016, Trump said he supported the use of interrogation torture methods such as waterboarding but later appeared to recant this due to the opposition of Defense Secretary James Mathis. Pardons and commutations Most of Trump's pardons were granted to people with personal or political connections to him, analyzed Harvard Law School professor Jack Goldsmith.

In his term, Trump sidestepped regular Department of Justice procedures for considering pardons, instead he often entertained pardon requests from his associates or from celebrities. In 2017, Trump pardoned former Arizona sheriff Joe Armies who was convicted of contempt of court for disobeying a court order to halt the racial profiling of Latinos.

In 2018, Trump pardoned former Navy sailor Kristian Saucier, who was convicted of taking classified photographs of a submarine; Scooter Libby, a political aide to former vice president Dick Cheney, who was convicted of obstruction of justice, perjury, and making false statements to the FBI; conservative commentator Dinesh D'Souza, who had made illegal political campaign contributions; and he commuted the life sentence of Alice Marie Johnson, a non-violent drug trafficking offender, following a request by celebrity Kim Kardashian. In February 2020, Trump pardoned white-collar criminals Michael Milken, Bernard Erik, and Edward J. DeBartolo Jr., and commuted former Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich's 14-year corruption sentence.

Trump in 2019 pardoned or reversed the sentences of three American soldiers convicted or accused of war crimes in Afghanistan or Iraq; then in 2020 he pardoned four Blackwater mercenaries convicted of killing Iraqi civilians in 2007's Ni sour Square massacre. In December 2020, he pardoned Charles Kushner, father of Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner; the elder Kushner previously pled guilty to witness tampering, tax evasion, and conducting illegal campaign donations.

Trump pardoned or commuted the sentences for five people convicted as a result of investigations into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential elections. In July 2020, Trump commuted the 40-month sentence for his friend and adviser Roger Stone, who had been soon due to report to prison for witness tampering, lying to Congress, and obstructing congressional investigations.

In November 2020, Trump pardoned his former National Security Advisor Michael Flynn, then in December 2020, Trump pardoned his 2016 campaign advisor George Papadopoulos and lawyer Alex van der Warn ; all three had pled guilty of lying to federal officials during the investigations. Also in December 2020, Trump pardoned Roger Stone and his 2016 campaign chairman Paul Manafort; the latter had pled guilty of conspiracy to obstruct justice and was convicted of fraud charges.

Drug epidemic Donald Trump's policies in response to the United States drug epidemic have been widely criticized as ineffectual and harmful. Lafayette Square protester removal and photo op Religious leaders condemned the treatment of protesters and the photo opportunity itself.

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Mark A. Miller, later apologized for accompanying Trump on the walk and thereby “great the perception of the military involved in domestic politics”. Trump has attempted to drastically escalate immigration enforcement, including harsher immigration enforcement policies against asylum seekers from Central America than any modern U.S. president.

This was accompanied by the Trump administration's mandating in 2018 that immigration judges must complete 700 cases a year to be evaluated as performing satisfactorily. Under Trump, migrant apprehensions at the U.S.–Mexico border rose to their highest level in 12 years, but deportations remained below the record highs of fiscal years 2012–2014.

From 2018 onwards, Trump deployed nearly 6,000 troops to the U.S.–Mexico border, to stop most Central American migrants from seeking U.S. asylum, and from 2020 used the public charge rule to restrict immigrants using government benefits from getting permanent residency via green cards. Trump has reduced the number of refugees admitted into the U.S. to record lows.

When Trump took office, the annual limit was 110,000; Trump set a limit of 18,000 in the 2020 fiscal year and 15,000 in the 2021 fiscal year. Additional restrictions implemented by the Trump administration caused significant bottlenecks in processing refugee applications, resulting in fewer refugees accepted compared to the allowed limits.

Travel ban Following the 2015 San Bernardino attack, Trump proposed to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a “proven history of terrorism”.

On January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and a federal judge blocked its implementation nationwide.

On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq and gave other exemptions, but was again blocked by federal judges in three states. In a decision in June 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a “credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States”.

The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, along with certain Venezuelan officials. After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4, 2017, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June 2019 ruling.

The Trump administration separated more than 5,400 children of migrant families from their parents at the U.S.–Mexico border while attempting to enter the U.S., sharply increased the number of family separations at the border starting from the summer of 2017. In April 2018, the Trump administration announced a zero tolerance policy whereby every adult suspected of illegal entry would be criminally prosecuted.

This resulted in family separations, as the migrant adults were put in criminal detention for prosecution, while their children were separated as unaccompanied alien minors. Administration officials described the policy as a way to deter illegal immigration.

The policy of family separations was unprecedented in previous administrations and sparked public outrage. Although Trump originally argued that the separations could not be stopped by an executive order, he proceeded to sign an executive order on June 20, 2018, mandating that migrant families be detained together, unless the administration judged that doing so would harm the child.

On June 26, 2018, a federal judge concluded that the Trump administration had “no system in place to keep track of” the separated children, nor any effective measures for family communication and reunification; the judge ordered for the families to be reunited, and family separations stopped, except in the cases where the parent(s) are judged unfit to take care of the child, or if there is parental approval. Despite the federal court order, the Trump administration continued to practice family separations, with more than a thousand migrant children separated.

Migrant detentions Overcrowded conditions for migrant families detained in Wesley, Texas were reported by inspectors from the federal government in June 2019. 2018–2019 federal government shutdown On December 22, 2018, the federal government was partially shut down after Trump declared that any funding extension must include $5.6 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall to partly fulfill his campaign promise.

Senate Republicans have said they will not advance any legislation Trump would not sign. In earlier negotiations with Democratic leaders, Trump commented that he would be “proud to shut down the government for border security”.

According to a CBO estimate, the shutdown resulted in a permanent loss of $3 billion to the U.S. economy. On January 25, 2019, Congress unanimously approved a temporary funding bill that provided no funds for the wall but would provide delayed paychecks to government workers.

Since the government funding was temporary, another shutdown loomed. On February 14, 2019, Congress approved a funding bill that included $1.375 billion for 55 miles of border fences, in lieu of Trump's intended wall.

National emergency regarding the southern border On February 15, 2019, after Trump received from Congress only $1.375 billion for border fencing after demanding $5.7 billion for the Trump wall, he declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States, in hopes of getting another $6.7 billion without congressional approval, using funds for military construction, drug interdiction, and money from the Treasury. In doing so, Trump acknowledged that he “didn't need to” declare a national emergency, but he “would rather do it much faster”.

Congress twice passed resolutions to block Trump's national emergency declarations, but Trump vetoed both and there were not enough votes in Congress for a veto override. In July 2019, the Supreme Court allowed Trump to use $2.5 billion (originally meant for anti-drug programs) from the Department of Defense to build the Trump wall.

The Trump administration set a target of 450 miles of new or renovated barriers by December 2020, with an ultimate goal of 509 miles of new or renovated barriers by August 2021. Even into 2020, Trump has repeatedly provided false assertions that Mexico is paying for the Trump wall, although American taxpayers are footing the bill from funds being diverted from the U.S. Department of Defense.

In October 2018, the administration revealed two miles of replacement fences made of steel posts, which it called the first section of Trump's 'wall', although earlier that year Border Patrol had said the project was unrelated to the Trump wall and had been long planned (dating to 2009). By November 2019, the Trump administration had replaced around 78 miles of the Mexico–United States barrier along the border; these replacement barriers were not walls, but fences made of bollards.

The administration in November 2019 said it had “just started breaking ground” to build new barriers in areas where no structure existed. By May 2020, the Trump administration had replaced 172 miles of dilapidated or outdated design barriers, and constructed 15 miles of new border barriers.

Syria In December 2018, Trump declared “we have won against ISIS,” contradicting Department of Defense assessments, and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria. Mathis resigned the next day in opposition to Trump's foreign policy, calling his decision an abandonment of the U.S.'s Kurdish allies who played a key role in fighting ISIS.

One week after his announcement, Trump said he would not approve any extension of the American deployment in Syria. In January 2019, national security advisor John Bolton announced America would remain in Syria until ISIS is eradicated and Turkey guarantees it will not strike the Kurds.

Trump with Turkish president Erdoan in November 2019In October 2019, after Trump spoke to Turkish president Recap Tail Erdoan, the White House acknowledged Turkey would carry out a military offensive into northern Syria, and U.S. troops in northern Syria were withdrawn from the area. The statement also passed responsibility for the area's captured ISIS fighters to Turkey.

As a result, Turkey launched an invasion, attacking and displacing American-allied Kurds in the area. Later that month, the U.S. House of Representatives, in a rare bipartisan vote of 354 to 60, condemned Trump's withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria, for “abandoning U.S. allies, undermining the struggle against ISIS, and spurring a humanitarian catastrophe”.

Trump repeatedly criticized the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JC POA), a nuclear deal negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015. After withdrawing from the agreement, the Trump administration moved forward with a policy of “maximum pressure” on Iran via economic sanctions, but without support of other parties to the deal.

The Trump State Department had certified Iran's compliance with the deal in July 2017, but Iran began breaching its terms in May 2020, and by September the Idea reported the country had ten times the amount of enriched uranium allowed under the deal. During the summer of 2020 the United States attempted to “snap back” pre-deal sanctions by asserting to the UN Security Council that it remained a participant in the deal, but only the Dominican Republic voted with the United States on the proposal.

In May 2017, strained relations between the U.S. and Iran escalated when Trump deployed military bombers and a carrier group to the Persian Gulf. Trump hinted at war on social media, provoking a response from Iran for what Iranian foreign minister Java Arif called “genocidal taunts”.

Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman are allies in the conflict with Iran. Trump approved the deployment of additional U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates following the attack on Saudi oil facilities which the United States has blamed on Iran.

On January 2, 2021, Trump ordered a U.S. airstrike that killed Iranian general and Buds Force commander ASEM Soleimani, Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces commander Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, and eight other people. Trump publicly threatened to attack Iranian cultural sites, or react “in a disproportionate manner” if Iran retaliated; though such attacks by the U.S. would violate international law as war crimes.

Several days later, Iran retaliated with airstrikes against Al Sad Air Base in Iraq. On January 7, 2021, an Iraqi judge issued an arrest warrant for Trump over the assassination of Soleimani.

In August 2017, Trump escalated his rhetoric, warning that North Korean threats would be met with “fire and fury like the world has never seen”. North Korea responded by releasing plans for missile tests that would land near Guam.

In a September 2017 speech at the UN General Assembly, Trump said the U.S. would “totally destroy North Korea” if “forced” to defend itself or its allies. Also in September 2017, Trump increased sanctions on North Korea, declared that he wanted North Korea's “complete denuclearization”, and engaged in name-calling with leader Kim Jong-un.

After this period of tension in 2017, however, Trump and Kim exchanged at least 27 letters (described by Trump as “love letters”), in which the two men describe a warm personal friendship. In March 2018, Trump immediately agreed to Kim's proposal for a meeting.

Kim affirmed his intent “to work toward complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula,” but a second Trump –Kim summit in Hanoi in February 2019 terminated abruptly without an agreement. Both countries blamed each other and offered differing accounts of the negotiations.

In June 2019, Trump, Kim, and South Korean president Moon Jae-in held brief talks in the Korean Demilitarized Zone, marking the first time a sitting U.S. president had set foot in North Korea. According to Russian president Vladimir Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.

Cabinet meeting, March 2017The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned.

Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Michael Flynn (after just 25 days in office), and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close personal aides to Trump including Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John Mentee, and Keith Schiller have quit or been forced out.

Some, like Hicks and Mentee, later returned to the White House in different posts. Trump has publicly disparaged several of his former top officials, calling them incompetent, stupid, or crazy.

On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI director James Coma. He first attributed this action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Eisenstein, which criticized Coma's conduct in the investigation about.

According to a Coma memo of a private conversation in February, Trump said he “hoped” Coma would drop the investigation into National Security Advisor Michael Flynn. In March and April, Trump had told Coma the ongoing suspicions formed a “cloud” impairing his presidency, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation.

Two of Trump's 15 original Cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Tillerson as Secretary of State with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy. In 2018, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt and Interior Secretary Ryan Zine resigned amid multiple investigations into their conduct.

Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying many of the positions are unnecessary. By January 8, 2019, of 706 key positions, 433 had been filled (61%) and Trump had no nominee for 264 (37%).

Fewer than 20 representatives in the House supported impeachment by January 2019. After the Mueller Report was released in April and special counsel Robert Mueller testified in July, this number grew to around 140 representatives.

In August 2019, a whistleblower filed a complaint with the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community about a July 25 phone call between Trump and President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky, during which Trump had pressured Zelensky to investigate CrowdS trike and Democratic presidential primary candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter, adding that the White House had attempted to cover-up the incident. The whistleblower further stated that the call was part of a wider campaign by the Trump administration and Trump's personal attorney Rudy Giuliani, which may have included withholding financial aid from Ukraine in July 2019 and canceling Vice President Pence's May 2019 Ukraine trip.

Trump later confirmed having withheld military aid from Ukraine, offering contradictory reasons for the decision. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi initiated a formal impeachment inquiry on September 24, 2019.

The Trump administration subsequently released a memorandum of the July 25 phone call, confirming that after Zelensky mentioned purchasing American anti-tank missiles, Trump asked Zelensky to investigate and to discuss these matters with Rudy Giuliani and Attorney General William Barr. The testimony of multiple administration officials and former officials confirmed that this was part of a broader effort to further Trump's personal interests by giving him an advantage in the upcoming presidential election.

In October 2019, William B. Taylor Jr., the chargé d'affaires for Ukraine, testified before congressional committees that soon after arriving in Ukraine in June 2019, he found that Zelensky was being subjected to pressure directed by Trump and led by Giuliani. According to Taylor and others, the goal was to coerce Zelensky into making a public commitment to investigate the company that employed Hunter Biden, as well as rumors about Ukrainian involvement in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

The report said Trump had withheld military aid and a White House invitation to pressure Ukraine to announce investigations into Trump's political rivals. Furthermore, the report stated that Trump “openly and indiscriminately” defied impeachment proceedings by telling his administration officials to ignore subpoenas.

House Republicans released a draft of a countering report denying the allegations. On December 13, 2019, the House Judiciary Committee voted along party lines to pass two articles of impeachment: abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.

After debate, the House of Representatives impeached Trump with both articles on December 18. On January 22, the Republican Senate majority rejected amendments proposed by the Democratic minority to call witnesses and subpoena documents; evidence collected during the House impeachment proceedings was entered into the Senate record.

For three days, January 22–24, the impeachment managers for the House presented their case to the Senate. They cited evidence to support charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress, and asserted that Trump's actions were exactly what the founding fathers had in mind when they created the Constitution's impeachment process.

Responding over the next three days, the Trump legal team did not deny the facts as presented in the charges but said Trump had not broken any laws or obstructed Congress. Thus, this became the first impeachment trial in U.S. history without witness testimony.

On February 5, Trump was acquitted of both charges in a vote nearly along party lines, with Republican Mitt Romney voting to convict on one of the charges, “abuse of power”. Following his acquittal, Trump began removing impeachment witnesses and political appointees and career officials he deemed insufficiently loyal.

Trump's public discussions of the risks of COVID-19 were at odds with his private understanding. In February 2020, Trump publicly implied that the flu was more dangerous than COVID-19 and asserted that the outbreak in the U.S. was “very much under control” and would soon be over, yet he told Bob Woodward at the time that COVID-19 was “deadly”, “more deadly than even your strenuous plus”, and “tricky” to handle due to its airborne transmission.

In March 2020, Trump privately told Woodward, “I wanted to always play it down. Trump's comments to Woodward were made public in September 2020.

A Cornell University study concluded that Trump was the “likely the largest driver” of COVID-19 misinformation in the first five months of 2020. Initial response Trump was slow to address the spread of the disease, initially dismissing the imminent threat and ignoring persistent public health warnings and calls for action from health officials within his administration and Secretary Agar.

Instead, throughout January and February he focused on economic and political considerations of the outbreak. By mid-March, most global financial markets had severely contracted in response to the emerging pandemic.

Trump continued to claim that a vaccine was months away, although HHS and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials had repeatedly told him that vaccine development would take 12–18 months. On April 22, Trump signed an executive order restricting some forms of immigration to the United States.

In late spring and early summer, with infections and death counts continuing to rise, he adopted a strategy of blaming the states for the growing pandemic, rather than accepting that his initial assessments of the course of the pandemic were overly-optimistic or his failure to provide presidential leadership. White House Coronavirus Task Force Trump established the White House Coronavirus Task Force on January 29, 2021.

Beginning in mid-March, Trump held a daily task force press conference, joined by medical experts and other administration officials, sometimes disagreeing with them by promoting unproven treatments. Trump was the main speaker at the briefings, where he praised his own response to the pandemic, frequently criticized rival presidential candidate Joe Biden, and denounced members of the White House press corps.

On March 16, he acknowledged for the first time that the pandemic was not under control and that months of disruption to daily lives and a recession might occur. By early April, as the pandemic worsened and amid criticism of his administration's response, Trump refused to admit any mistakes in his handling of the outbreak, instead blaming the media, Democratic state governors, the previous administration, China, and the WHO.

By mid-April 2020, some national news agencies began limiting live coverage of his daily press briefings, with The Washington Post reporting that propagandistic and false statements from Trump alternate with newsworthy pronouncements from members of his White House Coronavirus Task Force, particularly coronavirus response coordinator Deborah Bird and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Anthony S. Fauci.” The daily coronavirus task force briefings ended in late April, after a briefing at which Trump suggested the dangerous idea of ingesting bleach or injecting a disinfectant to treat COVID-19; the comment was widely condemned by medical professionals.

In early May, Trump proposed that the coronavirus task force should be phased out, to accommodate another group centered on reopening the economy. Amid a backlash, Trump publicly said the task force would “indefinitely” continue.

By the end of May, the coronavirus task force's meetings were sharply reduced. The program trained scientists in sixty foreign laboratories to detect and respond to viruses that have the potential to cause pandemics.

One such laboratory was the Wuhan lab that first identified the virus that causes COVID-19. After revival in April 2020, the program was given two 6-month extensions to help fight COVID-19 in the U.S. and other countries.

World Health Organization Prior to the pandemic, Trump criticized the WHO and other international bodies, which he asserted were taking advantage of U.S. aid. In May and April, Trump accused the WHO of “severely mismanaging and covering up the spread of the coronavirus” and alleged without evidence that the organization was under Chinese control and had enabled the Chinese government's concealment of the origins of the pandemic.

Trump's criticisms and actions regarding the WHO were seen as attempts to distract attention from his own mishandling of the pandemic. The decision was widely condemned by health and government officials as “short-sighted”, “senseless”, and “dangerous”.

Controversy over face masks as strategy for pandemic mitigation Trump has refused to wear a face mask at most public events, contrary to his own administration's April 2020 guidance that Americans should wear masks in public and despite nearly unanimous consensus by the medical community that masks are important to preventing the spread of the virus. Trump's contradiction of medical recommendations weakened national efforts to mitigate the pandemic.

Testing In June and July Trump said several times that the U.S. would have fewer cases of coronavirus if it did less testing, that having many reported cases “makes us look bad”. The CDC guideline was that any person exposed to the virus should be “quickly identified and tested” even if they are not showing symptoms, because asymptomatic people can still spread the virus.

In August 2020, however, the CDC quietly lowered its recommendation for testing, advising that people who have been exposed to the virus, but are not showing symptoms, “do not necessarily need a test”. The change in guidelines was made by HHS political appointees under Trump administration pressure, against the wishes of CDC scientists.

The following day, the testing guideline was changed back to its original recommendation, stressing that anyone who has been in contact with an infected person should be tested. Pressure to abandon pandemic shutdown mandates early In April 2020, Republican-connected groups organized anti-lockdown protests against the measures state governments were taking to combat the pandemic; Trump encouraged the protests on Twitter, even though the targeted states did not meet the Trump administration's own guidelines for reopening.

He first supported, then later criticized, Georgia Governor Brian Kemp's plan to reopen some nonessential businesses, which was a key example of Trump often reversing his stances in his communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the spring he increasingly pushed for ending the restrictions as a way to reverse the damage to the country's economy.

Despite record numbers of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. from mid-June onward and an increasing percentage of positive test results, Trump continued to mostly downplay the pandemic, including his false claim in early July 2020 that 99% of COVID-19 cases are “totally harmless”. He also began insisting that all states should open schools to in-person education in the fall despite a July spike in reported cases.

Political pressure on health agencies Trump repeatedly pressured federal health agencies to take particular actions that he favored, such as approving unproven treatments or speeding up the approval of vaccines. Trump administration political appointees at HHS sought to control CDC communications to the public that undermined Trump's claims that the pandemic was under control.

Trump alleged without evidence that FDA scientists were part of a deep state opposing him, and delaying approval of vaccines and treatments to hurt him politically. Hospitalization with COVID-19 Trump departs the White House for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020On October 2, 2021, Trump announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19.

He was admitted to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center that day and treated with the antiviral drug remdesivir, the steroid dexamethasone, and the unapproved experimental antibody REGN-COV2. White House physician Sean Conley announced on October 12 that Trump tested negative for COVID-19 on consecutive days.

Democratic challenger Joe Biden sought to make the election a referendum on Trump's performance on the COVID-19 pandemic and the economy. Polls indicated voters blamed Trump for his pandemic response and disbelieved his rhetoric concerning the virus, with an Dipsos / ABC News poll indicating 65% of Americans disapproving of his pandemic response.

In the final months of the campaign, Trump repeatedly claimed that the U.S. was “rounding the turn” in managing the pandemic, despite increasing numbers of reported cases and deaths. Since he assumed the presidency, Trump has been the subject of increasing Justice Department and congressional scrutiny, with investigations covering his election campaign, transition and inauguration, actions taken during his presidency, along with his private businesses, personal taxes, and charitable foundation.

A book by Jeffrey Too bin, published in 2020, summarizes evidence against Trump as if he were on trial before a jury. Hush payments American Media, Inc. (AMI) paid $150,000 to Playboy model Karen McDougal in August 2016, and Trump's attorney Michael Cohen paid $130,000 to adult film actressStormy Daniels in October 2016.

Both women were paid for non-disclosure agreements regarding their alleged affairs with Trump between 2006 and 2007. Cohen pleaded guilty in 2018 to breaking campaign finance laws, saying he had arranged both payments at the direction of Trump in order to influence the presidential election.

AMI admitted paying McDougal to prevent publication of stories that might damage Trump's electoral chances. Trump denied the affairs, and claimed he was not aware of Cohen's payment to Daniels, but reimbursed him in 2017.

Federal prosecutors asserted that Trump had been involved in discussions regarding non-disclosure payments as early as 2014. Court documents showed that the FBI believed Trump was directly involved in the payment to Daniels, based on calls he had with Cohen in October 2016.

The connections between Trump associates and Russia have been widely reported by the press. One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked from December 2004 until February 2010 to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych win the Ukrainian presidency.

Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials. Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump.

Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election. On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Islam about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Flynn later resigned in the midst of controversy over whether he misled Pence.

After the Democratic National Committee was hacked, Trump firstly claimed it withheld “its server” from the FBI (in actuality there were more than 140 servers, of which digital copies were given to the FBI); secondly that CrowdS trike, the company which investigated the servers, was Ukraine-based and Ukrainian-owned (in actuality, CrowdS trike is U.S.-based, with the largest owners being American companies); and thirdly that “the server” was hidden in Ukraine. Members of the Trump administration have spoken out against the conspiracy theories.

Within days of its opening, deputy attorney general Rod Eisenstein curtailed the inquiry, giving the bureau the impression that the incipient Mueller investigation would pursue it, though Eisenstein instructed Mueller not to, effectively ending the inquiry. Special counsel investigation On May 17, 2017, former Deputy Attorney General Rod Eisenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) investigating “any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation”, thus taking over the existing Crossfire Hurricane FBI investigation into the matter.

The special counsel also investigated whether Trump's dismissal of James Coma as FBI director constituted obstruction of justice, and possible campaign ties to other national governments. Trump repeatedly denied any collusion between his campaign and the Russian government.

He bemoaned the refusal of his first Attorney General Jeff Sessions regarding Russia matters, and believed Sessions should have stopped the investigation. On March 22, 2019, Mueller concluded his investigation and gave his report to Attorney General William Barr.

Barr further wrote that he and Eisenstein did not see sufficient evidence to prove obstruction of justice. Trump interpreted Mueller's report as a “complete exoneration”, a phrase he repeated multiple times in the ensuing weeks.

Mueller privately complained to Barr on March 27 that his summary did not accurately reflect what the report said, and some legal analysts called the Barr letter misleading. A redacted version of the report was released to the public on April 18, 2019.

The first volume found that Russia interfered to favor Trump's candidacy and hinder Clinton's. Despite “numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign”, the prevailing evidence “did not establish” that Trump campaign members conspired or coordinated with Russian interference.

The report states that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election was illegal and occurred “in sweeping and systematic fashion”, and it details how Trump and his campaign welcomed and encouraged foreign interference believing they would politically benefit. The second volume of the Mueller report dealt with possible obstruction of justice by Trump.

The report did not exonerate Trump of obstruction inasmuch as investigators were not confident of his innocence after examining his intent and actions. Investigators decided they could not “apply an approach that could potentially result in a judgment that the President committed crimes” as an Office of Legal Counsel opinion stated that a sitting president could not be indicted, and investigators would not accuse him of a crime when he cannot clear his name in court.

The report concluded that Congress, having the authority to take action against a president for wrongdoing, “may apply the obstruction laws”. Congress subsequently launched an impeachment inquiry following the Trump –Ukraine scandal, albeit it ultimately did not press charges related to the Mueller investigation.

Associates In August 2018, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud. Trump said he felt very badly for Manafort and praised him for resisting the pressure to make a deal with prosecutors.

Cohen said he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as “Individual-1” in the court documents. The five Trump associates who have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in Mueller's investigation or related cases include Paul Manafort, deputy campaign manager Rick Gates, foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn, and Michael Cohen.

In February 2020, Trump campaign adviser Roger Stone was sentenced to over three years in jail, after being convicted of lying to Congress and witness tampering regarding his attempts to learn more about hacked Democratic emails during the 2016 election. The sentencing judge said Stone “was prosecuted for covering up for the president “.

2019 congressional investigation In March 2019, the House Judiciary Committee launched a broad investigation of Trump for possible obstruction of justice, corruption, and abuse of power. Committee chairman Jerrold Nadler sent letters demanding documents to 81 individuals and organizations associated with Trump's presidency, business, and private life, saying it is “very clear that the president obstructed justice”.

Three other committee chairmen wrote the White House and State Department requesting details of Trump's communications with Putin, including any efforts to conceal the content of those communications. The White House refused to comply, asserting that presidential communications with foreign leaders are protected and confidential.

Trump has appointed more than 200 federal judges who were confirmed by the Senate. Senate Republicans, led by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, have rapidly confirmed Trump's judicial appointees, usually against unified Democratic opposition.

Trump's appointments have shifted the federal judiciary to the right. Trump has made three nominations to the Supreme Court : Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh, and Amy Coney Barrett.

Gorsuch was confirmed in 2017 in a mostly party-line vote of 54–45, after Republicans invoked the nuclear option (a historic change to Senate rules removing the 60-vote threshold for advancing Supreme Court nominations) to defeat a Democratic filibuster. Trump's predecessor Obama had nominated Merrick Garland in 2016 to fill the vacancy, left by the death of Antonin Scalia, but Senate Republicans under McConnell refused to consider the nomination in the last year of Obama's presidency, angering Democrats.

In 2020, weeks before the elections, Trump nominated Amy Coney Barrett to fill the vacancy left by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. On October 26, 2021, the Senate voted 52–48 to confirm her nomination.

As president, Trump has disparaged courts and judges whom he disagrees with, often in personal terms, and has questioned the judiciary's constitutional authority. Trump's attacks on the courts have drawn rebukes from observers, including sitting federal judges, who are concerned about the effect of Trump's statements on the judicial independence and public confidence in the judiciary.

Breaking with precedent, Trump filed to run for a second term with the FEC within a few hours of assuming the presidency. Trump held his first re-election rally less than a month after taking office.

In his first two years in office, Trump's reelection committee reported raising $67.5 million, allowing him to begin 2019 with $19.3 million cash on hand. From the beginning of 2019 through July 2020, the Trump campaign and Republican Party raised $1.1 billion, but spent $800 million of that amount, losing their cash advantage over the Democratic nominee, former vice president Joe Biden.

The cash shortage forced the campaign to scale-back advertising spending. Trump in Arizona holding an official rally of his campaignStarting in spring 2020, Trump began to sow doubts about the election, repeatedly claiming without evidence that the election would be “rigged” and that the expected widespread use of mail balloting would produce “massive election fraud”.

In what The New York Times called an “extraordinary breach of presidential decorum”, on July 30 Trump raised the idea of delaying the election. When in August the House of Representatives voted for a US$25 billion grant to the U.S.

Postal Service for the expected surge in mail voting, Trump blocked funding, saying he wanted to prevent any increase in voting by mail. He repeatedly refused to say whether he would accept the results of the election and commit to a peaceful transition of power if he lost.

Trump campaign advertisements focused on crime, claiming that cities would descend into lawlessness if his opponent, Biden, won the presidency. Trump repeatedly misrepresented Biden's positions during the campaign.

Trump's campaign message shifted to racist rhetoric in an attempt to reclaim voters lost from his base. At 2 a.m. the morning after the election, with the results still unclear, Trump declared victory.

Trump and his allies filed dozens of legal challenges to the results, which were rejected by at least 86 judges from across the political spectrum, in both the state and federal courts, including by federal judges appointed by Trump himself. The courts found that Trump's claims had no factual or legal basis.

Trump's unsubstantiated allegations of widespread voting fraud were also refuted by state election officials. On December 11, 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear a case filed by the Texas attorney general, supported by Trump and his Republican allies, which asked the court to overturn the election results in four states won by Biden.

With his post-election legal challenges to the election of Biden failing, Trump withdrew from public activities, drawing criticism that, given the surge in the pandemic, his retreat constituted “irresponsible sulking.” Trump initially blocked government officials from cooperating in the presidential transition of Joe Biden.

After three weeks of resistance, the administrator of the General Services Administration declared Biden the apparent winner of the election, allowing the disbursement of transition resources to his team. Trump still did not formally concede while claiming he recommended the GSA begin transition protocols.

The Electoral College formalized Biden's victory on December 14. Although Trump said he would leave the White House if the Electoral College voted for Biden, he still continued to try to overturn the results of the election.

Trump supporters stormed the Capitol, disrupting certification and causing the evacuation of Congress. Trump released a video telling the rioters to “go home in peace”, but described them as being “great patriots” and “very special”.

After the mob was removed from the Capitol, Congress reconvened and confirmed the Biden election win early the next morning. The attack received worldwide condemnation and led to calls for Trump to be impeached or declared unfit as president, and for his immediate removal.

At the end of Trump's second year, his two-year average Gallup approval rating was the lowest of any president since World War II. In January 2020, his Gallup rating reached 49%, the highest point since he took office, with 63% of those polled approving his handling of the economy.

Since Gallup started conducting the poll in 1948, Trump is the first elected president not to be named most admired in his first year in office. Globally, a Gallup poll on 134 countries comparing the approval ratings of U.S. leadership between the years 2016 and 2017 found that only in 29 of them did Trump lead Obama in job approval, with more international respondents disapproving rather than approving of the Trump administration.

Overall ratings were similar to those in the last two years of the George W. Bush presidency. Only 16% of international respondents expressed confidence in Trump by mid-2020, according to a 13-nation Pew Research poll; this score was even lower than those of Russia's Vladimir Putin and China's Xi Jinping.

Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. He frequently tweeted during the 2016 election campaign and has continued to do so as president.

As of October 2020, Trump has more than 85 million Twitter followers. Trump has frequently used Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press.

A White House press secretary said early in his presidency that Trump's tweets are official statements by the President of the United States, employed for announcing policy or personnel changes. Trump used Twitter to fire Secretary of State Rex Tillerson in March 2018 and Secretary of Defense Mark Ester in November 2020.

Trump responded by threatening to “strongly regulate” or “close down” social media platforms. On January 8, Twitter permanently suspended Trump's account “due to the risk of further incitement of violence,” after having temporarily locked his account over two specific tweets two days earlier.

Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on “false or misleading claims” (orange background), and “false claims” (violet foreground), respectively. As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks. The misinformation has been documented by fact-checkers ; academics and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics.

This behavior was similarly observed when he was a presidential candidate. His falsehoods have also become a distinctive part of his political identity.

Trump uttered “at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days” in office, according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office, according to the “Fact Checker” political analysis column of The Washington Post. Some of Trump's falsehoods are inconsequential, such as his claims of a large crowd size during his inauguration.

Others have had more far-reaching effects, such as Trump's promotion of unproven antimalarial drugs as a treatment for COVID19 in a press conference and on Twitter in March 2020. The claims had consequences worldwide, such as a shortage of these drugs in the United States and panic-buying in Africa and South Asia.

The state of Florida obtained nearly a million doses for its hospitals, even though most of them did not want the drug. Other misinformation, such as Trump's retweet of unverified videos produced by far-right fascist Jada Fran sen in November 2017, serves Trump's domestic political purposes.

Despite the frequency of Trump's falsehoods, the media rarely referred to them as “lies”, a word that has in the past been avoided out of respect for the presidential office. Nevertheless, in August 2018 The Washington Post declared for the first time that some of Trump's misstatements (statements concerning hush money paid to Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal) were lies.

In 2020, Trump was a significant source of disinformation on national voting practices and the COVID-19 virus. Trump's attacks on mail-in ballots and other election practices served to weaken public faith in the integrity of the 2020 presidential election, while his disinformation about the pandemic dangerously delayed and weakened the national response to it.

Some view the nature and frequency of Trump's falsehoods as having profound and corrosive consequences on democracy. James Pfeffer, professor of policy and government at George Mason University, wrote in 2019 that Trump lies differently from previous presidents, because he offers “egregious false statements that are demonstrably contrary to well-known facts”; these lies are the “most important” of all Trump lies.

Fox News anchor Bret Bear and former House speaker Paul Ryan have characterized Trump as a troll who makes controversial statements to see people's “heads explode”. In the 2016 campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries.

New York Times writer Amy Choice wrote in 2018 that Trump's media dominance, which enthralls the public and creates “can't miss” reality television -type coverage, was politically beneficial for him. Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign and his presidency, Trump has accused the press of bias, calling it the “fake news media” and “the enemy of the people “.

After winning the election, journalist Lesley Stahl recounted Trump's saying he intentionally demeaned and discredited the media “so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you.” Trump has privately and publicly mused about revoking the press credentials of journalists he views as critical.

His administration moved to revoke the press passes of two White House reporters, which were restored by the courts. In 2019, a member of the foreign press reported many of the same concerns as those of media in the U.S., expressing concern that a normalization process by reporters and media results in an inaccurate characterization of Trump.

The Trump White House held about a hundred formal press briefings in 2017, declining by half during 2018 and to two in 2019. Trump has employed the legal system as an intimidation tactic against the press.

In early 2020, the Trump campaign sued The New York Times, The Washington Post, and CNN for alleged defamation. Many of his supporters say the way he speaks reflects his rejection of political correctness, while others accept it because they share such beliefs.

Scholars have discussed Trump's rhetoric in the context of white supremacy. Several studies and surveys have found that racist attitudes fueled Trump's political ascendance and have been more important than economic factors in determining the allegiance of Trump voters.

Racist and Islamophobic attitudes have been shown to be a powerful indicator of support for Trump. In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters.

He has also been accused of racism for insisting a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger case, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. Trump relaunched his political career in 2011 as a leading proponent of “birther” conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama, the first black U.S. president, was not born in the United States.

In April 2011, Trump claimed credit for pressuring the White House to publish the “long-form” birth certificate, which he considered fraudulent, and later saying this made him “very popular”. In September 2016, amid pressure, he acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S. and falsely claimed the rumors had been started by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign.

In 2017, he reportedly still expressed birther views in private. According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly, Trump made “explicitly racist appeals to whites” during his 2016 presidential campaign.

In particular, his campaign launch speech drew widespread criticism for claiming Mexican immigrants were “bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists.” His later comments about a Mexican-American judge presiding over a civil suit regarding Trump University were also criticized as racist.

In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation, he reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African nations as “shithole countries”. His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress.

White nationalist publications and social media sites praised his remarks, which continued over the following days. Trump continued to make similar remarks during his 2020 campaign.

Trump has a history of insulting and belittling women when speaking to media and in tweet. He made lewd comments, demeaned women's looks, and called them names like 'dog', 'crazed, crying lowlife', 'face of a pig', or 'horse face'.

In October 2016, two days before the , a 2005 hot mic recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about kissing and groping women without their consent, saying “when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy.” The incident's widespread media exposure led to Trump's first public apology during the campaign and caused outrage across the political spectrum.

At least twenty-six women have publicly accused Trump of sexual misconduct as of September 2020 , including his then-wife Ivana. In 2016, he denied all accusations, calling them “false smears”, and alleged there was a conspiracy against him.

Some research suggests Trump's rhetoric causes an increased incidence of hate crimes. During the 2016 campaign, he urged or praised physical attacks against protesters or reporters.

Since then, some defendants prosecuted for hate crimes or violent acts cited Trump's rhetoric in arguing that they were not culpable or should receive a lighter sentence. In August 2019 it was reported that a man who allegedly assaulted a minor for perceived disrespect toward the national anthem had cited Trump's rhetoric in his own defense.

In August 2019, a nationwide review by ABC News identified at least 36 criminal cases in which Trump was invoked in direct connection with violence or threats of violence. Of these, 29 were based around someone echoing presidential rhetoric, while the other seven where someone protesting it or not having direct linkage.

Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip-hop lyrics since the 1980s; he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone. Mentions of Trump in hip-hop turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015.

In 1983, Trump received the Jewish National Fund Tree of Life Award, after he helped fund two playgrounds, a park, and a reservoir in Israel. In 1986, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in recognition of “patriotism, tolerance, brotherhood and diversity”, and in 1995 was awarded the President's Medal from the Freedoms Foundation for his support of youth programs.

Robert Gordon University revoked their honorary degree in 2015 after Trump called for a Muslim ban, citing Trump's speech being “wholly incompatible... with the ethos and values of the university”. The honorary degrees from Leigh University and Wagner College were revoked after the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol.

Liberty University issued a pair of honorary doctorates, business in 2012 and law in 2017. Presidential elections in the United States are decided by the Electoral College.

^ a b Ronald Reagan was older upon his second-term inauguration, and upon being inaugurated in 2021, President -elect Joe Biden will replace both as the oldest president ever to serve. “Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election”.

Bloomberg Billionaires Index listed Trump's net worth as $2.97 billion in June 2019, and Wealth-X listed it as at least $3.2 billion in April 2019. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and the Electoral College in 1824 (since no one had a majority in the Electoral College, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilde in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality).

“Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump (PDF). “Donald Trump's Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It”.

^ “Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees” (PDF). “It's the 50th anniversary of the day Trump left college and (briefly) faced the draft”.

“Michael Cohen Says Trump Told Him to Threaten Schools Not to Release Grades”. “Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show”.

“Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet”. “Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93”.

Trump's family denied German heritage for years”. “Meet Donald Trump's siblings, the oldest of whom just retired as a federal judge”.

^ “Ivana Trump to write memoir about raising US president's children”. “Marla Finally Becomes Mrs. Trump It Was 'Paparazzi' Aplenty And Glitz Galore As The Couple Pledged Their Troth”.

“Tiffany Trump's Sad, Vague Tribute to Her Distant Father”. “Overlooked Influences on Donald Trump : A Famous Minister and His Church”.

^ “Donald Trump says he gets most of his exercise from golf, then uses cart at Turn berry”. “Bernstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter”.

Trump doctor Harold Bernstein says bodyguard, lawyer 'raided' his office, took medical files”. “The White House Doctor Called President Trump's Health 'Excellent'.

Trump's Physical Revealed Serious Heart Concerns, Outside Experts Say”. President Trump has a common form of heart disease”.

Trump returns to White House downplaying virus that hospitalized him and turned West Wing into a 'ghost town “. President Trump Received Experimental Antibody Treatment”.

Trump has fallen 138 spots on Forbes' wealthiest-Americans list, his net worth down over $1 billion, since he announced his presidential bid in 2015”. “Donald J. Trump Files Personal Financial Disclosure Statement With Federal Election Commission” (PDF).

“Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators”. “Donald Trump : My dad gave me 'a small loan' of $1 million to get started”.

Trump Engaged in Suspect Tax Schemes as He Reaped Riches From His Father”. “New York could levy hefty penalties if Trump tax fraud is proven”.

Mr Trump's performance has been mediocre compared with the stock market and property in New York. “The myth and the reality of Donald Trump's business empire”.

Trump tumbles down the Forbes 400 as his net worth takes major hit”. “Decade in the Red: Trump Tax Figures Show Over $1 Billion in Business Losses”.

^ Better, Russ; Craig, Susanne ; McIntyre, Mike (September 27, 2021). “ ^ “Report: Tax records show Trump tried to land China projects”.

“Donald Trump Has At Least $1 Billion In Debt, More Than Twice The Amount He Suggested”. ' No Vacancies' for Blacks: How Donald Trump Got His Start, and Was First Accused of Bias”.

Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father”. Trump, Lifelong New Yorker, Declares Himself a Resident of Florida”.

Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors”. “That Time Trump Sold the Plaza Hotel at an $83 Million Loss”.

“The Truth About the Rise and Fall of Donald Trump's Atlantic City Empire”. “How Donald Trump Made Millions Off His Biggest Business Failure”.

^ Ale sci, Cristina ; Frankel, Laurie; Saudi, Jeanne (May 19, 2016). Trump spent 1 of every 5 days in 2019 at a golf club”.

“What Donald Trump Learned From Joseph McCarthy's Right-Hand Man”. “Inside the government's racial bias case against Donald Trump's company, and how he fought it”.

“How Donald Trump and Roy Cohn's Ruthless Symbiosis Changed America”. “Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him”.

“Art of the spin: Trump bankers question his portrayal of financial comeback”. Trump's long and winding history with Deutsche Bank could now be at the center of Robert Mueller's investigation”.

Trump sues in bid to block congressional subpoena of financial records”. “Accountants Must Turn Over Trump's Financial Records, Lower-Court Judge Rules”.

^ Merle, Renal; Spanish, Michael ; Some, Felicia (May 22, 2019). “Judge rejects Trump's request to halt congressional subpoenas for his banking records”.

“Deutsche Bank Can Release Trump Records to Congress, Judge Rules”. Trump's appeal to keep finances away from Democrats goes to court headed by Merrick Garland”.

Trump Legal Team Files Brief in Majors Appeal”. “House subpoenas for Trump's bank records put on hold while President appeals”.

“5 things to know about Donald Trump's foray into doomed USF”. “The Strange Tale of Donald Trump's 1989 Biking Extravaganza”.

“Did the Trump Family Historian Drop a Dime to the New York Times?” Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to Weeping Talent Agency”.

^ Cohan, William D. “Big Hair on Campus: Did Donald Trump Defraud Thousands of Real Estate Students?” “New York Attorney General Is Investigating Trump's For-Profit School”.

“NY Court Refuses to Dismiss Trump University Case, Describes Fraud Allegations”. “Former Trump University Workers Call the School a 'Lie' and a 'Scheme' in Testimony”.

“Hard Sell: The Potential Political Consequences of the Trump University Documents”. Trump pays IRS a penalty for his foundation violating rules with gift to aid Florida attorney general”.

“Missing from Trump's list of charitable giving: His own personal cash”. “Taking a peek at Trump's (foundation) tax returns”.

“Meet the reporter who's giving Donald Trump fits”. “NY attorney general is investigating Trump Foundation practices”.

Trump Foundation ordered to stop fundraising by N.Y. attorney general's office”. “Donald Trump to dissolve his charitable foundation after mounting complaints”.

“New York attorney general sues Trump Foundation”. Trump Foundation Will Dissolve, Accused of 'Shocking Pattern of Illegality “.

President Donald Trump ordered to pay $2M to collection of nonprofits as part of civil lawsuit”. Trump Has Revealed Assumptions About Handling Presidential Wealth, Businesses”.

^ a b c In Focus: The Emoluments Clauses of the U.S. Constitution (PDF) (Report). “Lawsuit on Trump Emoluments Violations Gains Traction in Court”.

“Appeals court lets emoluments lawsuit against Trump proceed”. “Reps of 22 foreign governments have spent money at Trump properties”.

Donald Trump mocks 'emoluments' clause of U.S. Constitution that bans foreign gifts”. “Three Decades of Donald Trump Film and TV Cameos”.

“Yes, Donald Trump Did Actually Play a Spoiled Rich Kid's Dad in The Little Rascals”. “Donald Trump gets regular Fox News spot”.

“How the conservative media is taking over the Republican Party”. “Donald Trump the Political Showman, Born on 'The Apprentice “.

“Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade “. “Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries”.

“Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President Act To CPA”. ^ Haber man, Maggie ; Burns, Alexander (March 12, 2016).

“Donald Trump's Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature”. ' Grab that record': How Trump's high school transcript was hidden”.

Trump : Immigration reform a “suicide mission” for GOP”. “Photos of Donald Trump Delivering His Self-Aggrandizing CPA Speech to a Half-Empty Ballroom”.

“N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor”. “Michael Cohen: I threatened Fordham to keep quiet about Trump's SAT scores and grades”.

“Why Donald Trump is poised to win the nomination and lose the general election, in one poll”. ^ Martin, Hannah; Lapin ski, John; Phyllis, Stephanie (July 19, 2016).

“Poll: Clinton and Trump Now Tied as GOP Convention Kicks Off”. “Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence for VP”.

^ Trump closes the deal, becomes Republican nominee for president ". ^ “US presidential debate: Trump won't commit to accept election result”.

“Make America Great Again: Donald Trump and Redefining the U.S. Role in the World”. On the campaign trail, Trump repeatedly called North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 'obsolete'.

“20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June”. Time, Jane C. “A Full List of Donald Trump's Rapidly Changing Policy Positions”.

“Donald Trump is waging war on political correctness. “This Harvard study is a powerful indictment of the media's role in Donald Trump's rise”.

^ Nolan, Angie Ironic ; AIU, Linda (December 21, 2015). “2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump ".

“The weekend America's newspapers called Donald Trump a liar”. “Donald Trump's controversial speech often walks the line”.

Many of Trump's opaque statements seem to rely on suggestion and innuendo. Flitter, Emily; Elephant, James (August 28, 2015).

“We need to stop acting like Trump isn't pandering to white supremacists”. “Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists”.

“Donald Trump Refuses to Condemn KKK, Disavow David Duke Endorsement”. “ Why we voted for Donald Trump “: David Duke explains the white supremacist Charlottesville protests”.

“Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme”. ^ “Donald Trump's New York Times Interview: Full Transcript”.

“Donald Trump Breaks With Recent History by Not Releasing Tax Returns”. “Pence's False claim that Trump 'hasn't broken' tax return promise”.

“Treasury says it will miss Democrats' deadline for turning over Trump tax returns, casts skepticism over request”. “IRS blows deadline to hand over Trump tax returns”.

“Steven Mnuchin Refuses to Release Trump's Tax Documents to Congress”. “Mnuchin Defies Subpoena for President Trump's Tax Returns”.

“Confidential draft IRS memo says tax returns must be given to Congress unless president invokes executive privilege”. “Mnuchin dismisses IRS memo saying Congress must be given Trump's tax returns”.

^ Schmidt, Kirsten; Andrews, Wilson (December 19, 2016). “A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton”.

Counting the Votes: A New Way to Analyze America's Presidential Elections. Trump lawyer cites 1876 crisis to rebuke Electoral College suit”.

Trump's victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones”. ^ “Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results” (PDF).

“Republicans are poised to grasp the holy grail of governance”. “Donald Trump will be the first U.S. president with no government or military experience”.

“Donald Trump will be the only US president ever with no political or military experience”. Trump supporter charged after sucker-punching protester at North Carolina rally”.

^ Sullivan, Sean; Miller, Michael E. (June 3, 2016). “Ugly, bloody scenes in San Jose as protesters attack Trump supporters outside rally”.

Trump calls protests 'unfair' in first controversial tweet as president -elect”. Trump says protesters have 'passion for our great country' after calling demonstrations 'very unfair “.

“At 2.6 million strong, Women's Marches crush expectations”. “We asked ten people why they felt empowered wearing a pink 'pussy' hat”.

Trump Sons Forge Ahead Without Father, Expanding and Navigating Conflicts”. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. ; Lipton, Eric ; Savage, Charlie (January 21, 2017).

“Jared Kushner, Trump's Son-in-Law, Is Cleared to Serve as Adviser”. President Trump's repeated claim: 'The greatest economy in the history of our country “.

^ Epstein, Reid J.; Nelson, Colleen McCain (June 28, 2016). “Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech”.

“The war over steel: Trump tips global trade into new turmoil”. “Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports”.

Trump sets tariffs on $50 billion in Chinese goods; Beijing strikes”. “Kudos acknowledges US will pay for China tariffs, contradicting Trump ".

“US trade deficit surges in July to highest in 12 years”. Trump signs USMC trade deal to replace 'nightmare NAFTA “.

^ “New North American trade pact to take effect July 1: User”. “The U.S. deficit hit $984 billion in 2019, soaring during Trump era”.

“The GOP's decision to keep its 2016 platform is, well, a little awkward for Trump ". “Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules”.

“As Syria embraces Paris climate deal, it's the United States against the world”. “Senate confirms Roulette, former Ford lobbyist, as energy secretary”.

President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years”. “Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House”.

More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target. Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests.

Trump Issues Executive Order Scaling Back Parts of Obamacare”. Trump Ramps Up Obamacare Sabotage With Huge Cuts To Enrollment Programs”.

“Without the Insurance Mandate, Health Care's Future May Be in Doubt”. Trump signs bill repealing ACA Cadillac tax, granting 'relief' for employers”.

Trump's claim that he 'saved' pre-ex conditions 'part fantasy, part delusion “. Trump Administration Asks Supreme Court to Strike Down Affordable Care Act”.

“Obamacare Must 'Fall,' Trump Administration Tells Supreme Court”. Trump Opens Door to Cuts to Medicare and Other Entitlement Programs”.

Trump walks abortion tightrope on SCOTUS pick”. “LGBTQ Advocates Say Trump's New Executive Order Makes Them Vulnerable to Discrimination”.

Trump abandons proposing ideas to curb gun violence after saying he would follow mass shootings”. Trump administration carries out first federal execution in 17 years”.

“U.S. puts convicted killer to death in 6th federal execution under Trump ". “Donald Trump : I'd bring back 'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding “.

^ “Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding”. Trump Issues 26 More Pardons, Including to Paul Manafort, Roger Stone”.

^ Hill yard, Vaughn; Helped, Phil (August 26, 2017). “ President Trump Grants Pardon for Former Sheriff Joe Armies”.

Trump Pardons Ex-Navy Sailor Sentenced For Photos of Submarine”. President Trump pardons former Cheney chief of staff Scooter Libby”.

^ Tucker, Philip ; Casey, Josh ; Wagner, John (June 1, 2018). “ Trump pardons conservative pundit Dinesh D'Souza, suggests others also could receive clemency”.

Trump's Pardons for Servicemen Raise Fears That Laws of War Are History”. Trump Pardons Two Russia Inquiry Figures and Blackwater Guards”.

“Opioid Crisis: Critics Say Trump Fumbled Response To Another Deadly Epidemic”. ^ a b c Leaning, Carol D. ; Sapolsky, Matt; Casey, Josh ; Tan, Rebecca (June 2, 2021).

“Barr personally ordered removal of protesters near White House, leading to use of force against largely peaceful crowd”. “A look at damage inside historic St. John's Church, which burned during protests”.

“2 new developments reinforce how problematic Trump's church photo op was”. “Religious leaders condemn teargassing protesters to clear street for Trump ".

^ a b Tucker, Philip ; Parker, Ashley (June 14, 2021). “Lafayette Square clash, still reverberating, becomes an iconic episode in Donald Trump's presidency”.

^ “Scores of retired military leaders publicly denounce Trump ". “Pentagon's top general apologizes for appearing alongside Trump in Lafayette Square/”.

“Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border”. “A USA TODAY analysis found Trump used words like 'invasion' and 'killer' at rallies more than 500 times since 2017”.

“Justice Department imposes quotas on immigration judges”. “How border apprehensions, ICE arrests and deportations have changed under Trump ".

“Pentagon to send a 'few thousand' more troops to southern border”. “Crackdown on immigrants who use public benefits takes effect”.

^ “Donald Trump has cut refugee admissions to America to a record low”. Trump Virtually Cuts Off Refugees as He Unleashes a Tirade on Immigrants”.

Trump ending U.S. role as worldwide leader on refugees”. Trump now proposes only Muslims from terrorism-heavy countries would be banned from U.S.” The Washington Post.

reporter asked Trump if would be OK with a Muslim from Scotland coming into the United States, and he said it 'wouldn't bother me'. Afterward, Hicks said in an email that Trump's ban would now just apply to Muslims in terror states ... Trump signs new travel ban directive”.

^ Walters, Joanna; Helm ore, Edward; Meghan, Speed Kamal (January 28, 2017). “US airports on frontline as Donald Trump's travel ban causes chaos and protests”.

“Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees”. “Hawaii judge halts Trump's new travel ban before it can go into effect”.

Trump says Supreme Court decision on travel ban a 'clear victory for our national security “. Trump travel ban extended to blocks on North Korea, Venezuela and Chad”.

“Supreme Court lets Trump's latest travel ban go into full effect”. “Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban”.

“Tally of children split at border tops 5,400 in new count”. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfelder ; Shear, Michael D. (June 16, 2018).

“How Trump Came to Enforce a Practice of Separating Migrant Families”. “Explaining Trump's Executive Order on Family Separation”.

“Donald Trump's family separations bedevil GOP as public outrage grows”. “Despite claims, GOP immigration bill would not end family separation, experts say”.

^ Davis, Julie Hirschfelder ; Nixon, Ron (May 29, 2018). “ Trump Officials, Moving to Break Up Migrant Families, Blame Democrats”.

Trump Retreats on Separating Families, but Thousands May Remain Apart”. “Judge says government does a better job of tracking 'personal property' than separated kids”.

Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General. Ricciardelli, Lauren; Knackered, Larry; Cochrane, Katherine; Sims, India; Crawford, Latina; Taylor, Dementia (July 18, 2019).

“A Snapshot of Immigration Court at Stewart Detention Center: How Social Workers Can Advocate & Advance Social Justice Efforts in the United States”. ^ Kiel, Eugene; Farley, Robert; Robertson, Lori (July 3, 2019).

^ Bound, Daniel; Martinez, Aaron (March 27, 2019). “CBP commissioner visits El Paso border, says immigration system at 'breaking point “.

^ Davis, Julie Hirschfelder ; Ticket, Michael (January 2, 2019). “ Trump and Democrats Dig In After Talks to Reopen Government Go Nowhere”.

' He's a gut politician': Trump's go-to negotiating tactics aren't working in shutdown standoff”. “Government shutdown cost the economy $11 billion: CBO”.

Trump signs bill to end $6bn shutdown and temporarily reopen government”. Trump signs bill to temporarily reopen government after longest shutdown in history”.

“Congress passes bill to prevent another US government shutdown, sending it to Trump ". Trump declares national emergency to build border wall, setting up massive legal fight”.

Trump issues first veto, warning of 'reckless' resolution”. “Attempt to override Trump vetoes on national emergency resolution fails in House”.

“Senate fails to override Trump vetoes over emergency declaration”. “Supreme Court clears way for Trump admin to use Defense funds for border wall construction”.

“Federal judge blocks Trump administration from using Pentagon funds for wall”. Trump's shift on concrete wall, tariff myth”.

“AP Fact Check: Trump revives false claim on wall at CPA”. “A Plaque Says This Fence In Southern California Is The First Completed Section Of Trump's Border Wall”.

“The private border wall group is building again, this time in Texas”. “Nancy Pelosi stated on November 17, 2019, in an interview on “Face the Nation”: President Trump “hasn't built any new (border) wall” during his time in office”.

“Donald Trump stated on May 19, 2021 in a speech: “On the Southern border, as you know, the wall is going up, it's going up very rapidly. ' I am a nationalist': Trump's embrace of controversial label sparks uproar”.

“Donald Trump's speech: 'America first', but an America absent from the world”. Trump questions need for NATO, outlines noninterventionist foreign policy”.

“The Cost of an Incoherent Foreign Policy: Trump's Iran Imbroglio Undermines U.S. “Present at the Disruption: How Trump Unmade U.S. Foreign Policy”.

Trump Administration Escalates Tensions With Europe as Crisis Looms”. Trump Discussed Pulling U.S. From NATO, Aides Say Amid New Concerns Over Russia”.

^ Handler, Mark ; Cooper, Helene ; Schmitt, Eric (December 19, 2018). “ ^ “Syria conflict: Trump's withdrawal plan shocks allies”.

^ Border, Julian ; Chloe, Martin (December 20, 2018). “ Trump shocks allies and advisers with plan to pull US troops out of Syria”.

“Jim Mathis, Defense Secretary, Resigns in Rebuke of Trump's Worldview”. “Contradicting Trump, Bolton says no withdrawal from Syria until ISIS destroyed, Kurds' safety guaranteed”.

^ Sanger, David E. ; Wetland, Noah; Schmitt, Eric (January 6, 2019). “Bolton Puts Conditions on Syria Withdrawal, Suggesting a Delay of Months or Years”.

“In Major Policy Shift, U.S. Will Stand Aside As Turkish Forces Extend Reach In Syria”. “In Bipartisan Rebuke, House Majority Condemns Trump for Syria Withdrawal”.

Trump praises arms sales as he meets Saudi crown prince”. ^ “Senate Votes Down Ending Trump's Support for Saudi-led War in Yemen”.

Trump Settles on Afghan Strategy Expected to Raise Troop Levels”. “U.S. signs peace deal with Taliban agreeing to full withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan”.

“Taliban and U.S. Strike Deal to Withdraw American Troops From Afghanistan”. Trump declares US leaving 'horrible' Iran nuclear accord”.

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