Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. The hardware platform, which Amazon subsidiary Lab126 developed, began as a single device in 2007.
Currently, it comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. In 2004, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos instructed the company's employees to build the world's best e-reader before Amazon's competitors could.
Amazon originally used the code name Fiona for the device. Branding consultants Michael Conan and Karin Him devised the Kindle name.
Lab126 asked them to name the product, and they suggested kindle “, meaning to light a fire. They felt this was an apt metaphor for reading and intellectual excitement.
The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008. The device featured a six-inch (diagonal) four-level grayscale E Ink display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold approximately 200 non-illustrated titles.
It also has a speaker and a headphone jack for listening to audio files. It has expandable storage via an SD card slot.
Content was available from Amazon via the Sprint Corporation US-wide EVDO3G data network, via a dedicated connection protocol which Amazon called Whisper net. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud.
By Amazon's estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. The Kindle 2 features a Free scale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 lithium polymer battery.
To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King released You’re, his then-new novella, made available exclusively through the Kindle Store. Kindle 2 international On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download e-books wirelessly.
This device has the largest Kindle screen at 9.7 inches and supports displaying PDF files. It was marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook content, includes built-in speakers, and has an accelerometer that enables users to rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side.
Kindle DX international On January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX international version was released in over 100 countries. Kindle DX Graphite On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite (Dog) globally.
The Dog has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio due to using E Ink Pearl technology and comes only in a graphite case color. It is speculated the case color change is to improve contrast ratio perception further, as some users found the prior white casing highlighted that the E Ink background is light gray and not white.
Due to these differences, the Dog runs the same firmware as Kindle 2. Therefore, Dog cannot display international fonts, like Cyrillic, Chinese, or any other non-Latin font, and PDF support and the web browser are limited to matching the Kindle 2's features.
Amazon withdrew the Kindle DX from sale in October 2012, but in September 2013 made it available again for a few months. Using 3G data is free when accessing the Kindle Store and Wikipedia.
Downloading personal documents via 3G data costs about $1 per megabyte. The Kindle Keyboard has a 6-inch screen with a resolution of 600×800 (167 PPI).
One of these, the Kindle Wi-Fi, was initially priced at $139 and connects to the Internet via Wi-Fi networks. The other version, called the Kindle 3G, was priced at $189 and includes both 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity.
The built-in free 3G connectivity uses the same wireless signals that cell phones use, allowing it to download and purchase content from any location with cell service. The Kindle Keyboard is available in two colors: classic white and graphite.
However, it remains significantly slower than traditional LCD's. It supports additional fonts and international Unicode characters and has a Voice Guide feature with spoken menu navigation from the built-in speakers or audio jack.
Battery life is advertised at up to two months of reading half an hour a day with the wireless turned off, which amounts to roughly 30 hours. The Kindle Keyboard generally received good reviews after launch.
Review Horizon describes the device as offering “the best reading experience in its class” while Engadget states, “In the standalone category, the Kindle is probably the one to beat”. They retain the 6-inch, 167-PPI e-ink display of the 2010 Kindle model, with the addition of an infrared touch-screen control on the Touch.
Kindle 4 The fourth-generation Kindle was significantly less expensive (initially $79 ad supported, $109 no ads) and features a slight reduction in weight and size, with a reduced battery life and storage capacity, compared to the Kindle 3. It has a silverware bezel, 6-inch display, nine hard keys, a cursor pad, an on-screen rather than physical keyboard, a flash storage capacity of 2 GB, and an estimated one month battery life under ideal reading conditions.
The latter version is capable of connect via 3G to the Kindle Store, download books and periodicals, and access Wikipedia. Experimental web browsing (outside Wikipedia) on Kindle Touch 3G is only available over a Wi-Fi connection.
Amazon announced in March 2012 that the device would be available in the UK, Germany, France, Spain and Italy on April 27, 2012. The Touch was the first Kindle to support X-Ray, which lists the commonly used character names, locations, themes, or ideas in a book.
In January 2013, Amazon released the 5.2.0 firmware that updated the operating system to match the Paper white's interface with the Touch's MP3/audiobook capabilities remaining. Amazon also claims that it has 15% faster page loads.
It has a 6 in, 212 PPI E Ink Pearl display (758×1024 resolution) with four built-in LEDs to illuminate the screen. The 3G access restrictions are the same as the Kindle Touch, and usage of the 3G data is limited to 50 MB per month and only on Amazon and Wikipedia's websites; additional data may be bought.
Battery life is advertised as up to eight weeks of reading with half an hour per day with wireless off and constant light use; this usage equals 28 hours. The official leather cover for the Paper white uses a hall effect sensor to detect when the cover is closed or opened and turn the screen off or on respectively.
The Kindle Paper white lacks physical buttons for page turning and does not perform auto-hyphenation. Except for the lock screen/power button at its bottom, it relies solely on the touchscreen interface.
In November 2012, Amazon released the 5.3.0 update that allowed users to turn off recommended content on the home screen in Grid View (allowing two rows of user content) and included general bug fixes. In March 2014, the Paper white 5.4.4 update was released that added Goo dreads integration, Kindle Freebie to restrict usage for children, Cloud Collections for organization and Page Flip for scanning content without losing your place, which closely matched the Paper white 2's software features.
The Kindle Paper white was released in most major international markets in early 2013, with Japan's version including 4 GB of storage, and in China on June 7, 2013; all non-Japan versions have 2 GB of storage (1.25 GB usable). The reviewer liked the front-lit display, high contrast, and useful software features, but did not like that it was less comfortable to hold than the Nook, the starting price includes ads, and it had no expandable storage.
Shortly after release, some users complained about the lighting implementation on the Kindle Paper white. While not widespread, some users found the lighting inconsistent, causing the bottom edge to cast irregular shadows.
Also, some users complained that the light cannot be turned off completely. The Paper white 2 features a higher contrast E Ink CARTA display technology, improved LED illumination, 25% faster processor (1 GHz) that allows for faster page turns, and better response to touch input compared to the original Paper white.
It has the same 6" screen with 212 PPI, bezel and estimated 28-hour battery life as the original Paper white. The software features dictionary/Wikipedia/X-Ray look-up, Page Flip that allows the user to skip ahead or back in the text in a pop-up window and go back to the previous page, and Goo dreads social integration.
It is the first basic Kindle to use a touchscreen for navigating within books and to have a 1 GHz CPU. It is also the first basic Kindle available in international markets such as India, Japan and China.
Kindle Voyage Kindle Voyage with origami cover. The Kindle Voyage was released on November 4, 2014, in the US It has a 6-inch, 300 PPI E Ink CARTA HD display, which was the highest resolution and contrast available in e-readers, as of 2014, with six LEDs with an adaptive light sensor that can automatically illuminate the screen depending on the environment. Its design features a flush glass screen on the front and the rear has angular, raised plastic edges that house the power button, similar to the Fire HD.
The Voyage uses “Prepress”, a navigation system that has sensors on either side of the screen that turns the page when pressed. The Verge rated the Voyage as 9.1 of 10, stating that “this is the best E Ink e-reader I've used, and it's unquestionably the best that Amazon has ever made.
Engadget rated the Voyage as 94 of 100, stating that while it was “easily the best e-reader that Amazon has ever crafted,” it was also the priciest at $199. It has a 6-inch, 1440×1080, 300 PPI E Ink CARTA HD display, which is twice the pixels of the original Paper white and has the same touchscreen, four LEDs and size as the previous Paper white.
This device improved on the display of PDF files, with the possibility to select text and use some functionalities, such as translation on a PDF's text. Amazon claims it has 6 weeks of battery life if used for 30 minutes per day with wireless off and brightness set to 10, which is about 21 hours.
The Paper white 3 is the first e-reader to include the Booker font, a new font designed by Amazon, and includes updated formatting functions such as hyphenation and improved spacing. The Booker font was added to older models via a firmware update.
In February 2016, the Paper white 2, Paper white 3, Kindle 7, and Voyage received the 5.7.2 update that included a new home screen layout, an OpenDyslexic font choice, improved book recommendations and a new quick actions menu. On June 30, 2016, Amazon released a white version of the Paper white 3 worldwide; the only thing different about this version is the color of the shell.
In October 2016, Amazon released the Paper white 3 “Manga Model” in Japan that has a 33% increase in page-turning speed and includes 32 GB of storage, which is space for up to 700 manga books. The Verge rated the Paper white 3 as 9.0 of 10, saying that “The Kindle Paper white is the best e-reader for most people by a wide margin” and liked the high-resolution screen but disliked that there was no adaptive backlight; this is featured on the Kindle Voyage.
Poplar called the 2015 Paper white “the best dedicated E Ink e-reader for the money.” The Oasis has a 6-inch, 300 PPI E Ink CARTA HD display with ten LEDs.
Its asymmetrical design features physical page turn buttons on one side and it has an accelerometer so the display can be rotated for one-hand operation with either hand. It has one thicker side that tapers to an edge that is 20% thinner than the Paper white.
It includes a removable leather battery cover for device protection and increased battery life that is available in either black, walnut (brown) or Merlot (red); the cover fits in the tapered edge. However, without the cover, the Oasis battery lasts about seven hours.
The Guardian's reviewer praised the Oasis's ease for holding, its lightweight design, long battery life, excellent display, even front lighting, usable page-turn buttons, and the luxurious cover. However, the reviewer believed the product was overpriced, noted that the battery cover only partially protects the back, and that the reader is not waterproof.
The Verge rated the Oasis as 9 of 10, praising its thinness, its weight without the cover and the ability to read with one hand, but did not like that is so expensive, has no adaptive backlight like the Voyage and it is not waterproof. Kindle 8 Amazon's upgrade of the standard Kindle was released on June 22, 2016, in both black and white colors ($80 ad-supported, $100 no ads).
The Kindle 8 features a new rounded design that is 0.35 inches (9 mm) shorter, 0.16 inches (4 mm) narrower, 0.043 inches (1.1 mm) thinner, and 1.1 ounces (30 g) lighter than the previous Kindle 7, and features double the RAM (512 MB) of its predecessor. It has the same screen display as its predecessor, a 167 PPI E Ink Pearl touch-screen display, and Amazon claims it has a four-week battery life and can be fully charged within four hours.
It has an asymmetric design like the first-generation Oasis, so it works for one-handed use, and the device finish is made from aluminum. The device has a black front, with either a silver or gold colored back.
The Oasis 2 is the first Kindle to be IPX8 rated so it is water-resistant up to two meters for up to 60 minutes, and first to be able to change the background black and the text to white. It is front-lit with 12 LEDs, and has ambient light sensors to adjust the screen brightness automatically.
The Oasis 2's internal battery lasts about six weeks of reading at 30 minutes a day. The Verge gave the Oasis 2 a score of 8 of 10, praising its design, display, and water resistance, but criticizing its high cost and inability to read an e-book while its related audiobook is playing.
Tech radar rated it as 4.5 of 5, saying the Oasis 2 is expensive but it praises as the best e-reader at the time with its lovely metal design, waterproofing and great reading experience. It is waterproof with an IPX8 rating, allowing submersion in 2 meters of fresh water for up to one hour.
It supports playback of Audible audiobooks only by pairing with external Bluetooth speakers or headphones. The Verge rated the Paper white 4 as 8.5 of 10, praising its great display, water-resistance and battery life but criticizing its lack of physical buttons and no USB-C support.
Externally it is nearly identical in appearance to the second-generation Oasis, with a similar 7-inch, 300ppi E Ink display, adjustable warm light, one-handed design, waterproofing, aluminum exterior, Bluetooth support and Micro USB for charging. It adds a 25 LED front light that can adjust color temperature to warmer tones, the first Kindle to be able to do so.
This device is available in two different colors; Graphite or Champagne Gold. The Verge gave the Oasis 3 an 8 of 10 rating, praising its design, display, and warmer E Ink display, but criticizing its high cost, no USB-C support and the lackluster update over the 2017 model.
With the release of the Kindle Paper white in 2012, Amazon released a natural leather cover and a plastic back that is form-fitted for the device that weighs 5.6 ounces. The subsequent Amazon covers include this function.
The Voyage attaches to the rear of the Protective Cover magnetically and the case's cover folds over the top, and the case weighs 4.6 ounces. The case can fold into a stand, propping the Kindle up for hands-free reading.
In May 2016, Amazon released the official Kindle Audio Adapter for reading e-books aloud via a text-to-speech (TTS) system for the blind and visually impaired. This accessibility accessory, initially supported only for the Paper white 3 and Oasis, plugs in the USB port and connects to headphones or speakers.
As an alternative to the official adapter, a generic USB to audio converter will also work with Voice view. Kindle devices support dictionary and Wikipedia look-up functions when highlighting a word in an e-book.
The font type, size and margins can be customized. Kindles are charged by connecting to a computer's USB port or to an AC adapter.
Users needing accessibility due to impaired vision can use an audio adapter to listen to any e-book read aloud on supported Kindles, or those with difficulty in reading text may use the Amazon Ember Bold font for darker text and other fonts may to have bold font versions. The Kindle also contains experimental features such a web browser that uses Seafront based on WebKit.
The browser can freely access the Kindle Store and Wikipedia on 3G models while the browser may be limited to 50 MB of data per month to websites other than Amazon and Wikipedia, Other possible experimental features, depending on the model are a Text-to-Speech engine that can read the text from e-books and an MP3 player that can be used to play music while reading. The Kindle's operating system updates are designed to be received wirelessly and installed automatically during a period in sleep mode in which Wi-Fi is turned on.
A user may install firmware updates manually by downloading the firmware for their device and copying the file to the device's root directory. The Kindle operating system uses the Linux kernel with a Java app for reading e-books.
Amazon offers an email -based service called “Send-to- Kindle that allows the user to send HTML pages, Microsoft Word documents, GIF, PNG, and BMP graphics directly to the user's Kindle library at Amazon. Sending the file is free if downloaded using Wi-Fi or $0.15 per MB when using a Kindle's 3G service.
When Amazon receives the file, it converts the file to Kindle format and stores it in the user's online library (called “Your Content” by Amazon). In addition to the document types mentioned above, this service can be used to send unprotected Mob files to a user's Kindle library.
The first Kindle could read unprotected Mobipocket files (Mob, PRC), plain text files (TXT), Topaz format books (TPA) and Amazon's AZW format. The Kindle 2 added native PDF capability with the version 2.3 firmware upgrade.
The Kindle 1 could not read PDF files, but Amazon provides experimental conversion to the native AZW format, with the caveat that not all PDFs may format correctly. The Kindle 2 added the ability to play the Audible Enhanced (AAX) format.
HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, and BMP are usable through Amazon's conversion service. The Keyboard, Touch, Oasis 2 & 3, Kindle 8 & 9, and Paper white 4 can also play Audible Enhanced (AA, AAX).
Kindles cannot natively display Pub files. Kindles can be jail broken to allow third-party software, such as Reader which does support Pub, to be installed.
A sharing limit typically ranges from one to six devices, depending on an undisclosed number of licenses set by the publisher. The user could only select what type of content to display on the home screen and whether to organize by author, title, or download date.
These collections are normally set and organized on the Kindle itself, one book at a time. X-Ray is a reference tool that is incorporated in Kindle Touch and later devices, the Fire tablets, the Kindle app for mobile platforms and Fire TV.
X-Ray lets users explore in more depth the contents of a book, by accessing pre-loaded files with relevant information, such as the most common characters, locations, themes, or ideas. Users can bookmark, highlight, and search through content.
Pages can be bookmarked for reference, and notes can be added to relevant content. While a book is open on the display, menu options allow users to search for synonyms and definitions from the built-in dictionary.
The device also remembers the last page read for each book. All clippings are appended to a single file, which can be downloaded over a USB cable.
On July 18, 2011, Amazon began a program that allows college students to rent Kindle textbooks from three different publishers for a fixed period of time. Kindle devices may report information about their users' reading data that includes the last page read, how long each e-book was opened, annotations, bookmarks, notes, highlights, or similar markings to Amazon.
In addition to published content, Kindle users can also access the Internet using the experimental web browser, which uses Seafront. Content for the Kindle can be purchased online and downloaded wirelessly in some countries, using either standard Wi-Fi or Amazon's 3G “Whisper net” network.
Whisper net is accessible without any monthly fees or a subscription, although fees can be incurred for the delivery of periodicals and other content when roaming internationally beyond the customer's home country. Through a service called “Whisper sync,” customers can synchronize reading progress, bookmarks, and other information across Kindle hardware and other mobile devices.
Books are checked out from the library's own site, which forwards to Amazon for the completion of the checkout process. Amazon then delivers the title to the Kindle for the duration of the loan, though some titles may require transfer via a USB connection to a computer.
If the book is later checked out again or purchased, annotations and bookmarks are preserved. Amazon released the Kindle for PC application in late 2009, available for Microsoft Windows systems.
This application allows e-books from Amazon's store or personal e-books to be read on a personal computer, with no Kindle device required. Amazon released a Kindle for Mac app for Apple Macintosh & OS X systems in early 2010.
In June 2010, Amazon released the Amazon Kindle for Android. Soon after the Android release, versions for the Apple iOS (iPhone and iPad) and BlackBerry OS phones were available.
In January 2011, Amazon released Kindle for Windows Phone. In July 2011, Kindle for HP TouchPad (running webs) was released in the U.S. as a beta version.
In August 2011, Amazon released an HTML5 -based web app for supported web browsers called Kindle Cloud Reader. In 2013, Amazon has expressed no interest in releasing a separate Kindle application for Linux systems; the Cloud Reader can be used on supported browsers in Linux.
The app uses Amazon's e-book store and it includes a monthly limited selection of free e-books. On June 2016, Amazon released the Page Flip feature to its Kindle applications that debuted on its e-readers a few years previously.
This feature allows the user to flip through nine thumbnails of page images at a time. Authors can upload documents in several formats for delivery via Whisper net and charge between $0.99 and $200.00 per download.
In a December 5, 2009, interview with The New York Times, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos revealed that Amazon keeps 65% of the revenue from all e-book sales for the Kindle ; the remaining 35% is split between the book author and publisher. After numerous commentators observed that Apple's popular App Store offers 70% of royalties to the publisher, Amazon began a program that offers 70% royalties to Kindle publishers who agree to certain conditions.
Some of these conditions, such as the inability to opt out of the lend ability feature, have caused some controversy. On January 21, 2010, Amazon announced the release of its Kindle Development Kit (SDK).
SDK aims to allow developers to build “active content” for the Kindle, and a beta version was announced with a February 2010 release date. A number of companies have already experimented with delivering active content through the Kindle's bundled browser, and the SDK gives sample code, documentation and a Kindle Simulator together with a new revenue sharing model for developers.
As of May 2014 Kindle store offered over 400 items labeled as active content. These items include simple applications and games, including a free set provided by Amazon Digital Services.
As of 2014, active content is only available to users with a U.S. billing address. In October 2014, Amazon announced that the Voyage and future e-readers would not support active content because most users prefer to use apps on their smartphones and tablets, but the Paper white first-generation and earlier Kindles would continue to support active content.
Specific Kindle device sales numbers are not released by Amazon ; however, according to anonymous inside sources, over three million Kindles had been sold as of December 2009, while external estimates, as of Q4-2009, place the number at about 1.5 million. According to James Acquired of Forrester Research, estimates are ranging around four million, as of mid-2010.
In 2010, Amazon remained the undisputed leader in the e-reader category, accounting for 59% of e-readers shipped, and it gained 14 percentage points in share. According to an International Data Corporation (IDC) study from March 2011, sales for all e-book readers worldwide reached 12.8 million in 2010; 48% of them were Kindles.
In the last three months of 2010, Amazon announced that in the United States its e-book sales had surpassed sales of paperback books for the first time. In January 2011, Amazon announced that digital books were outselling their traditional print counterparts for the first time ever on its site, with an average of 115 Kindle editions being sold for every 100 paperback editions.
IDC estimated that the Kindle Fire sold about 4.7 million units during the fourth quarter of 2011. Pacific Crest estimated that the Kindle Fire models sold six million units during Q4 2012.
Morgan Stanley estimates that Amazon sold $3.57 billion worth of Kindle e-readers and tablets in 2012, $4.5 billion in Kindle device sales in 2013 and $5 billion in Kindle device sales in 2014. Working Kindles in good condition can be sold, traded, donated or recycled in the aftermarket.
Due to some Kindle devices being limited to use as reading device and the hassle of reselling Kindles, some people choose to donate their Kindle to schools, developing countries, literacy organizations, or charities. “Project Hart” may take donations of e-readers that could be given to people in need.
Whether in good condition or not, Kindles should not be disposed of in normal waste due to the device's electronic ink components and batteries. In the United States, Amazon runs their own program, 'Take Back', which allows owners to print out a prepaid shipping label, which can be used to return the device for disposal.
On July 17, 2009, Amazon withdrew from sale two e-books by George Orwell, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, refunding the purchase price to those who had bought them, and remotely deleted these titles from purchasers' devices without warning after discovering that the publisher lacked rights to publish these books. The two books were protected by copyright in the United States, but they were in the public domain in some other countries.
Notes and annotations for the books made by users on their devices were left in a separate file but “rendered useless” without the content to which they were directly linked. The move prompted outcry and comparisons to Nineteen Eighty-Four itself: in the novel, books, magazines, and newspapers in public archives that contradict the ruling party are either edited long after being published or destroyed outright; the removed materials go “down the memory hole “, the nickname for an incinerator chute used in 1984.
On July 23, 2009, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos posted on Amazon's official Kindle forum an apology about the company's handling of the matter. Bezos said the action was “stupid”, and that the executives at Amazon “deserve the criticism received”.
On July 30, 2009, Justin Swarovski, a Michigan high school senior, and Antoine Bugbear, a California engineer, filed suit against Amazon in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. Bugbear argued that Amazon had violated its terms of service by remotely deleting the copy of Nineteen Eighty-Four he purchased, in the process preventing him from accessing annotations he had written.
Swarovski's copy of the e-book was also deleted without his consent, and found Amazon used deceit in an email exchange. The complaint, which sought class-action status, asked for both monetary and injunctive relief.
For copies of Works purchased pursuant to TOS granting “the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy” of each purchased Work and to “view, use and display an unlimited number of times, solely on the ... and solely for personal, non-commercial use”, Amazon will not remotely delete or modify such Works from Devices purchased and being used in the U.S. unless (a) the user consents to such deletion or modification; (b) the user requests a refund for the work or otherwise fails to pay for the work (e.g., if a credit card issuer declines payment); (c) a judicial or regulatory order requires such deletion or modification; or (d) deletion or modification is reasonably necessary to protect the consumer, the operation of a device or network used for communication (e.g., to remove harmful code embedded within an e-book on a device). On September 4, 2009, Amazon offered all affected users a choice of restoring of the deleted e-books or receiving an Amazon gift certificate or check for $US30.
In December 2010, Amazon removed three e-books written by Selena Kit, along with works by several other self-published erotic fiction authors, for “offensive” content regarding consensual incest that violated Amazon's publishing guidelines. Kit stated her opinion this Amazon policy was selectively applied to some books but not others that feature similar themes.
For what Amazon describes as “a brief period of time”, the books were unavailable for redownload by users who had already purchased them. This ability was restored after it was brought to Amazon's attention; however, no remote deletion took place.
In October 2012, Amazon suspended the account of a Norwegian woman who purchased her Kindle in the United Kingdom, and the company deleted every e-book on her Kindle. Amazon claimed that she had violated their terms of service but did not specify what she had done wrong.
After the woman contacted the media, Amazon restored her account and her purchased e-books. Computer programmer Richard Stall man criticized the Kindle, citing Kindle terms of service which can censor users, which require the user's identification, and that can have a negative effect on independent book distributors; he also cited reported restrictions on Kindle users, as well the ability for Amazon to delete e-books and update software without the users' permission.
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Kindle DX: Amazon takes on the world”. Kindle DX Wireless Reading Device, Free 3G, 3G Works Globally, Graphite, 9.7” Display with New E Ink Pearl Technology: Kindle Store”.
^ Kindle Touch: Touchscreen e-Reader with Wi-Fi, 6” E Ink Display”, WWW. ^ Amazon Kindle Touch 3G Now for Sale to Customers in over 175 Countries”, Amazon .com Press Releases, March 27, 2012 ^ “Reading Enhancements”.
require fonts that were chosen or designed with the limitations of e-ink in mind. A dedicated e-reader in 2012 has no excuse for not including a good auto-hyphenation algorithm.
^ “E Ink new higher contrast CARTA display, Amazon Kindle Paper white”, Engadget, September 4, 2013 ^ Amazon's Next Kindle Paper white Leaks Early, Now Available To Pre-Order For U.S. “The year in reviews: 2013's best and worst gadgets scored and scrutinized”.
^ Amazon's Kindle Voyage is its Most Advanced E-reader Yet Retrieved September 18, 2014. ^ Kindle Voyage Next-Gen Paper white Display, Highest-Resolution, The Highest Contrast, New Adaptive Front Light, Reimagined Page Turns, Wi-Fi or Wi-Fi + Free 3G”.
Amazon's new high-end e-reader, the Kindle Voyage, starts at $199 but has fancy page turns”. ^ Kindle Voyage Engadget ^ Pierce, David (June 17, 2015).
“The New Kindle Paper white Is Perfect for Picky Readers”. Amazon undercuts its high-end e-reader with new 300 PPI Kindle Paper white”.
^ Amazon's Kindle Oasis is the funkiest e-reader it's ever made The Verge Retrieved April 13, 2016 ^ “Meet Amazon's New E-Reader, the Kindle Oasis”. ^ Amazon Develops a new Kindle Font called Ember Good reader, Retrieved April 27, 2016.
^ Samuel Gibbs (April 26, 2016) Amazon Kindle Oasis review: the luxury e-reader really is something special The Guardian, Retrieved April 27, 2016. ^ Katherine Beret (May 4, 2016) Amazon Kindle Oasis review The Verge Retrieved 2 June 2016.
^ “New Kindle Oasis is Waterproof, Costs $249, and Has a 7” Screen”. ^ Casey Newton (October 31, 2017) Amazon Kindle Oasis 2017 e-book reader review The Verge Retrieved 15 December 2017.
^ Amazon Kindle Paper white (2018) review: the new best-seller The Verge Retrieved 21 November 2018. ^ Amazon Kindle (2019 Asmara Retrieved 20 March 2019.
^ The new Kindle Oasis lets you adjust color temperature for night reading. ^ Chief Gutenberg (July 24, 2019) Amazon Kindle Oasis 2019 review: getting warmer.
Amazon Extends Battery Life of The Newest Kindle by 85 Percent and Adds Native PDF Reader”. “Video: Amazon Kindle Touch's X-Ray Reference Tool Makes reading Easier”.
Amazon launches Kindle textbook rentals.” ^ “Seafront Browser Gives Amazon Kindle Customers On-Device Access to Information-Rich Websites like Wikipedia.org”.
^ “What is the Amazon Whisper net wireless feature and how does it work?” “Survey of Kindle, Nook, iPad, Sony and Overdrive e-book Store Collection Size”.
“Samsung and Amazon Team Up For Custom Galaxy Kindle E-Book App”. ^ Amazon 'Page Flip' Lets You Easily Skim Through E-Books”.
“Questions for Jeffrey P. Bezos: Book Learning”. Amazon Fires Missile At Book Industry, Launches 70 percent Kindle Royalty Option”.
Nearly 18 Million Media Tablets Shipped in 2010 with Apple Capturing 83 percent Share; reader Shipments Quadrupled to More Than 12 Million. Archived November 13, 2012, at the Payback Machine Press release by IDC, 10.
^ “Plaintiff's Complaint in Justin GAWRONSKI and A. Buggier v. Amazon .com, Inc” (PDF). ^ Orwell, George, “Part One, Chapter 4”, 1984 ^ “Why Amazon went Big Brother on some Kindle e-books”.
“An Interview with Richard Stall man on Freedom, Android, Amazon, Facebook, Steve Jobs…” . Open Source For U. Archived from the original on September 14, 2015.
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