The genus of animal- horn instruments to which the scholar belongs is called (learn) in Hebrew, Pärnu in Akkadian, and (eras) in Greek. The oxidant or elephant (an abbreviation of the French cor d'oxidant / elephant, elephant horn “) was the name applied in the Middle Ages to ivory hunting or signalling horns made from elephants' tusks.
But the earliest secure description of the wooden instrument now called an Alford dates from the sixteenth century. This description by the naturalist Conrad Lesser calls the instrument a litmus alpines and says it is “nearly eleven feet long, made from two pieces of wood slightly curved and hollowed out, fitted together and skillfully bound with osiers “.
Nevertheless, one modern authority says that at the time it was a straight instrument eleven feet long, and this form persisted in Austria until the nineteenth century. The more familiar form, with an upturned bell, was developed in Switzerland in the eighteenth century.
The practice of making these instruments in different sizes, to be played together in part music, originated in 1826. Similar wooden instruments, used by shepherds for signalling, are known in Romania by the name Lucius.
Metal instruments modelled on animal horns survive from as early as the 10th century BC, in the form of lure (a modern name devised by archaeologists). Nearly fifty of these curved bronze horns have been excavated from burial sites, mostly in Scandinavia, since the first was discovered in 1797.
The our was likely known to the Etruscans, noted as bronze-workers from the 8th century BC, who in turn were credited by the Romans with the invention of their horns and trumpets, including long curved horns in the form of a letter C or G. Depictions of these instruments are found from the 5th century BC onward on Etruscan funerary monuments. Very old metal instruments similar in form to both the lure and the corn, often also with ceremonial or military uses, are known on the Indian subcontinent by a variety of names: raising, raising, bring, reinsuring (Sanskrit for “war- horn “), kurudutu, and bomb.
By the early 17th century, there were two main types of hunting horns, both designed to deal with the problem of providing a tube long enough to allow playing higher partials, while at the same time allowing the instruments to be played on horseback. Marin Presence calls this trompe, made in a crescent shape, and the cor à clusters tours, a tightly coiled instrument in spiral form.
The tightly coiled (or spiral) form of horn was never very popular in France, but both there and in Germany was usually called a trumpet “. The earliest surviving horn of the tightly spiraled type, dating from about 1570, is by Valentin Springer, though it is described as early as 1511 by Sebastian Verdun.
The earliest surviving crooked horn was made by the Viennese maker Michael Leichamschneider and is dated 1721. In England, the crooked horn appeared as early as 1704, when it was called corn aromatic or, because of its origin and because it was most often played by German musicians (in particular the Messing family, who popularized the instrument in London beginning around 1730), “German horn “.
The solution came with the creation of the Inventions horn in about 1753 by the famous horn player Anton Joseph Hamper in collaboration with the Dresden instrument maker Johann Georg Werner. In order to raise the pitch above F, however, it was necessary to insert a new, shorter lead pipe, acting as a crook.
This design was adapted and improved by the Parisian maker Raoul in about 1780, and adopted by many soloists in France. In the mid-18th century, horn players began to insert the right hand into the bell to change the effective length of the instrument, adjusting the tuning up to the distance between two adjacent harmonics depending on how much of the opening was covered.
A notable example of this are the four Mozart Horn Concert and Concert Rondo (K. 412, 417, 477, 495, 371), wherein melodic chromatic tones are used, owing to the growing prevalence of hand-stopping and other newly emerging techniques. In 1818 rotary valves were introduced by Heinrich Stolen and Friedrich Blumer (later, in 1839, piston valves were applied to the horn by François Perinea), initially to overcome problems associated with changing crooks during a performance.
Valves' unreliability, musical taste, and players' distrust, among other reasons, slowed their adoption into mainstream. Some musicians, specializing in period instruments, still use a natural horn when playing in original performance styles, seeking to recapture the sound and tenor in which an older piece was written.
That is reflected in compositions for horns, which only began to include chromatic passages in the late 19th century. Archaeologists have discovered cow horns with finger holes drilled in the side (providing a more complete musical scale) dating from the Iron Age.
This type of rustic instrument is found down to the present day all over the Baltic region of Europe, and in some parts of Africa. In Scandinavia, it is known by many names: Shorthorn, bullhorn, finger horn, Leghorn, Lahore, prillarhorn, soittotorvi, Sheldon, author, tut horn, bullhorn, and many others.
The cornet, which became one of the most popular wind instruments of the Renaissance and early Baroque periods, was developed from the finger hole- horn idea. Another variant, called the “mute cornet”, was turned from a single piece of wood with the mouthpiece an integral part of the instrument.
Because the types of wood used were usually light, these were sometimes referred to as “white cornets”. The earliest use of the name in English is in Le More d'Arthur from about 1400 where, as in most subsequent sources it is spelled with a single T: “cornet”.
In order to put the finger holes within reach of the human hand, these bass instruments required so many curves they acquired the name serpent “. The ophicleide only remained in use until the middle of the nineteenth century when it was eclipsed by the superior valved brass instruments.
Each man in the band was trained to play his note in turn, similar to the way in which a group of handball ringers perform melodies by each sounding their bells at a predetermined moment. This horn band, effectively a giant human music-box of the sort only feasible in a slave culture, played its first public concert in 1753 or 1755 and debuted officially at the Grand Hunt concert in 1757, creating a fashion that spread outside of Russia and continued for eighty years.
Some bands toured Europe and the British Isles, playing arrangements of standard concert repertory and Russian folk music, as well as original compositions. Pitch is controlled through the adjustment of lip tension in the mouthpiece and the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra tubing.
The backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more-piercing quality of the trumpet. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly By.
This configuration provides a high-range horn while avoiding the additional complexity and weight of a triple. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly By.
Usually, in order to play higher octave notes, the pressure exerted on the lips from the mouthpiece is increased. Manufacturing of this instrument sharply decreased in the middle of the twentieth century, and this cellphone (or mellophonium) rarely appears today.
A derivative of the F alto horn, it is keyed in F. It is shaped like a flügelhorn, with piston valves played with the right hand and a forward-pointing bell. Cellphones are, however, sometimes unpopular with horn players because the mouthpiece change can be difficult and requires a different embouchure.
As an instrument it compromises between the ability to sound like a horn, while being used like a trumpet or flügelhorn, a trade off that sacrifices acoustic properties for ergonomics. Many college marching bands and drum corps, however, use cellphones instead, which, with many marching bands, better balance the tone of the other brass instruments ; additionally, cellphones require less special training of trumpet players, who considerably outnumber horn players.
Pitched in eight alternating sizes in E-flat and B-flat, like saxophones, they were originally designed for army use and revolutionized military and brass bands in Europe and America. Later makers, particularly in America, altered the scale and designs sometimes to such an extent as to make it difficult to determine whether the larger sizes of the resulting instruments actually have descended from the sax horn or the tuba.
The tenor and baritone horns, amongst other sizes of instruments used in British brass bands, are members of the sax horn family. Its common range is similar to that of the euphonious, but its possible range is the same as that of the horn, extending from low FM, below the bass clef staff to high C above the treble staff when read in F. These low pedals are substantially easier to play on the Wagner tuba than on the horn.
The first occurrence of horn calls in standard musical notation is in the hunting treatise La generic by Jacques du Bouillon, dated variously as 1561 and 1573, followed soon after in an English translation by George Gasoline (often distributed to George Turberville) titled The Noble Art of Generic or Hunting (1575). Jacques du Bouillon notates the calls on a single pitch, C 4, whereas Gasoline presents them on D 4.
Although it is generally accepted that the horns used on the hunt at this early date were only capable of a single note, or at best a striking of the pitch well below and “whooping up to the true pitch”, the objection has been raised against a literal, monotonic interpretation of the notation on grounds that many of the calls would be indistinguishable one from another, whereas the hunt participants would need each call to be distinctive, even if we have no direct evidence of melodic variation. Apart from hunting calls, there is no surviving music from before the seventeenth century that specifies use of the horn.
In the late fourteenth century, Italian Jackie (a word meaning both canon and “hunt”, and cognate with English “chase”) sometimes use lively figures on two notes a fourth apart, such as Ghirardelli the Firenze's Toto Che l'Alba, after the words “so corn sonata” (sounded his horn). A less certain association is found in the same alternation of two notes a fourth apart in John Bull's The King's Hunt in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, copied at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
The increased tube length of the cor à clusters tours in the late sixteenth century and with the troupe DE chassé in the middle of the seventeenth, a larger number of pitches became available for horn calls, and these calls are imitated in program music from the second quarter of the seventeenth century onward, though scored not for actual horns but for strings only. A few years later, Jean-Baptiste Lully used horn calls in a five-part piece for strings called “Le CORS DE chassé” in the comédie-ballet La Princess d'Elide, itself part of the extravagant entertainment titled Les pliers DE l'mile enchanted (1664).
1676, portrays a scene from Lully's work, and is probably the earliest iconographic representation of the hooped horn. Soon afterward the hooped troupe DE chassé began appearing in ballet and opera orchestras in the Empire and German states.
The intraday of a ballet by Johann Heinrich Schmoozer, performed in Linz on 15 November 1680, was played by violins and hunting horns together, according to the libretto (the music does not survive). An anonymous Sonata the Garcia con UN corn from before 1680 found in a manuscript in Kramer sets a cor à clusters tours against two violins, two violas, and basso continue, and a Sonata senatorial from 1684 by Pavel Josef Vejvanovský calls for two trouble breves, which probably also means spiral horns, though hooped horns are not out of the question.
A particularly significant composition is a Concerto à 4 in By by Johann Beer, for core DE chassé, post horn, two violins, and basso continue. In the works of Alessandro Scarlatti and Antonio Lott, the horn was quickly adopted into Neapolitan opera, the most fashionable in Europe at the time.
One of the first Neapolitan works to use horns was Scarlatti's Santa IL genie Austria: IL Sole, Flora, Zero, Antelope e SEATO, performed 28 August 1713 as part of the celebrations for the birthday of Empress Elizabeth Christina. The usual name for the horn in these Neapolitan scores was tomb the Garcia, an Italianization of the French troupe DE chassé.
It is thought that the trombone the Garcia called for by Vivaldi in his opera Orlando into jazz (1714), and his Concerto in F for violin, two trombone the Garcia, two oboes, and bassoon, RV574, was also a hooped horn. In the early nineteenth century, Carl Maria on Weber, in addition to giving the horn a prominent orchestral place in the overtures to the operas Oberon and Her Freischütz, composed a spectacularly difficult Concertina in E Minor which, amongst other things, includes an early use of multi phonics, produced by humming into the instrument while playing.
Coaching Rossini exploited the instrument's association with hunting in a piece called Rendezvous DE chassé for four corn the Garcia and orchestra (1828). Camille Saint-Saëns did not write a concerto as such, but did compose two Romances for horn (or cello) and orchestra, Op.
One of Schubert's last works is the Octet (D803), written in 1824, which adds a second violin to Beethoven's Septet scoring. ^ Will Apex, Harvard Dictionary of Music (1969), p. 874, noting that the trumpet is “cylindrical for about three-fourths its length”, and identifying this as one of the characteristics that “distinguish it from the horn, which has a prevailing conical bore”.
^ Sibyl Marcuse, “Eras”, “Learn”, and “Pärnu”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975). ^ Sibyl Marcuse, “Oxidant” and “Elephant”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975).
^ Sibyl Marcuse, “Alford”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975). ^ “long um were ad cedes under, duo bus lignin bodice incurs & excavates compact um, & minibus site obligated” (Conrad Lesser, DE Paris ET admirals herbs VAE five VoD not Luciano, side alias ob causes, Hungarian nominator, commentaries : & orbiter DE alias ETAM rebus quæ in tenebrous recent : inference & icons quondam herb arum love : added description Months Fact, side Months Pilate, junta Lucerne in Helvetian : his accident Io.
DV School G.F. Lugdunensis, Pilate Months in Gallic description : Io Rhellicani Stockhornias, qua Stockhornus Mons altissimus in Berkelium Heluetiorum ago, versions heroics describing. ^ Sibyl Marcuse, “Lucius” and “Tunic”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975).
ISBN 0-684-15229-0 ; Sibyl Marcuse, “Cor”, “Corn”, “Corn”,”Corn”, “Bomb”, “Reinsuring”, “Bring”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975). ^ a b c d Renato Mecca and Gabriele Rossetti, Horn “, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Terrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001): 2: “History to c1800”, (i) Development of the Natural Horn.
ISBN 0-684-15229-0 ; ^ a b Renato Mecca and Gabriele Rossetti, Horn “, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Terrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001): 2: “History to c1800”, (iii) “Crooks and Hand Technique”. ^ See, e.g., the performance of the Quondam TU souls sanctum from Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor as performed by soloists and the choir and instrumentalists of the English Concert, conducted by Harry Ticket, at the 2012 BBC Proms in London.
^ Birgit Maelstrom, “Bock horn ”, Grove Music Online, edited by Dean Root Oxford Music Online (Oxford University Press, web, 13 January 2015, accessed 26 June 2015); Sibyl Marcuse, “Bullhorn”, “Finger hole horn “, “Manual”, “Soittotorvi”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition, the Norton Library N758 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1975): 71, 182, 329, 484. ^ Anthony C. Barnes and Bruce Dickey, “Cornet”, Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online (Oxford University Press, web, n.d., accessed 26 June 2015); Sibyl Marcuse, “Cornet”, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition, the Norton Library N758 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1975): 128–29.
Smaller and larger versions were also made, the large, tenor cornet often with a double curve, in an S shape. ^ Anthony Barnes, Brass Instruments: Their History and Development (London: Faber and Faber; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976): 176–77; H. C. Collet, Anthony C. Barnes, and Thomas Hilbert, Horn band ”, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Terrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001); Sibyl Marcuse, “Russian horn “, Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition, the Norton Library N758 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1975): 448; Jeremy Montage, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments (Latham, MD; Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2007): 44.
ISBN 978-1-878822-83-3 ; Jeremy Montage, The World of Romantic and Modern Musical Instruments (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1981): 86. ^ Eva Marie Heater, Early Hunting Horn Calls and Their Transmission: Some New Discoveries “, Historic Brass Society Journal 7 (1995): 123–41.
^ Eva Marie Heater, Early Hunting Horn Calls and Their Transmission: Some New Discoveries “, Historic Brass Society Journal 7 (1995): 123–41. ^ Eva Marie Heater, Early Hunting Horn Calls and Their Transmission: Some New Discoveries “, Historic Brass Society Journal 7 (1995): 123–41.
^ Eva Marie Heater, Early Hunting Horn Calls and Their Transmission: Some New Discoveries “, Historic Brass Society Journal 7 (1995): 123–41. ^ a b Renato Mecca and Gabriele Rossetti, Horn “, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Terrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001): 2: “History to c1800”, (ii) Ensemble and Orchestral Use.