The Detroit Post
Thursday, 28 October, 2021

How Is Canada Weather

author
Paul Gonzalez
• Thursday, 19 November, 2020
• 25 min read

Peter Bowers / Getty Images Generally, Canada's most populated regions are the regions not too far north of the U.S. and Canada border and include Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver. Temperatures and climate from British Columbia's interior, east to Newfoundland are comparable but do vary depending on latitude and mountainous topography.

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Contents

Aside from just what the thermometer reads, weather conditions are important to understand before arriving in Canada. Winter in Vancouver rarely sees snow stay on the ground, but is cool and rainy.

In addition, Vancouver summers are warm but not as hot and humid as its eastern counterparts. The weather in Toronto is similar to North American cities like New York and Chicago.

Cities in Toronto and east of there will generally get inches or even feet of snowfall from December to March. And keep in mind, the rainy season in Calgary lasts from May to September, with it peaking in June.

Dennis Coleman / Getty Images Canada has four distinct seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall. Spring comes first on the west coast in February, and ramps up in the other parts of the country in late March and April, and lasts until June.

What to pack: Spring can have its cold days, so bring a heavier jacket just in case. And if you're going to be taking advantage of any outdoor activities, don't forget the sunblock and bug spray.

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What to pack: Similar to springtime, layers and a slightly heavier jacket are important for those chillier days. You'll need a heavy winter coat, long underwear, thick wool socks and snow boots to keep you warm.

Chevron down Light Moderate quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.

These acids form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water, and have negative impacts on the environment and human health. Advisory A type of alert from Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC), where a certain weather or environmental hazard (for example air quality, humid ex, and tsunami) is either occurring, imminent or is expected to occur.

Air Mass An extensive body of the atmosphere with comparable temperature and humidity. Alert A transmitted signal that is used to heighten awareness and/or initiate preparation for action.

Alerts are issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for weather or environmental hazard events that are either occurring, imminent, or forecast to develop. Alerts are currently issued as special weather statements, advisories, watches and warnings.

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Apogee (lunar) The point in the moon’s orbit that is farthest from the Earth. Arctic Sea Smoke (also called Steam Fog) A type of fog that forms when an outbreak of cold Arctic air settles over an expanse of open, relatively warmer water.

Arrangement of the Atmosphere The mass of air held close to the earth by gravity. The internationally recognized unit for measuring atmospheric pressure is the kilopascal (PA).

Aurora Borealis The luminous, radiant emission from the upper atmosphere that appears over middle and high latitudes, and is centered on the earth's magnetic poles. These silent fireworks are often seen on clear winter nights in a variety of shapes and colors, and are also referred to as the Northern Lights.

It defines large, thick, uneven and discolored ice floes that form on the upstream side of shoals and islets in rivers, when cold weather precedes or accompanies neap tides. It is composed of ice of different thicknesses formed under pressure during ebb tide, the whole mass freezes together and gradually increasing, with each successive tide.

As the range increases between the neap and spring tides, large sections of grounded ice break away and drift down river causing the floes. Belt Sea-ice terminology meaning a large area of pack/drift ice that is longer than it is wide.

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Berry Bit Sea-ice terminology that describes a piece of glacier ice, generally showing at 1 m to less than 5 m above sea level; with a length of 5 m to less than 15 m. Beset Sea-ice terminology meaning a situation in which a vessel is surrounded by ice and unable to move.

Bight Sea-ice terminology that describes an extensive crescent-shaped indentation in the ice edge, formed by either wind or current. Blizzard A severe weather condition characterized by reduced visibility from falling and/or blowing snow and strong winds that may be accompanied by low temperatures.

Blizzard Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for hazardous weather conditions characterized by high winds, and a widespread reduction in visibility due to falling and/or blowing snow. Blizzard conditions may persist for a period of time on their own or be part of an intense winter storm.

Blizzard conditions may be accompanied by a severe wind chill making it even more dangerous. A blowing snow event is less extreme than a blizzard in duration and/or visibility.

Hummock Sea-ice terminology that describes a downward projection from the underside of sea ice; the submariner's counterpart of a hummock CalvingCape Verde-type Hurricanes Atlantic basin tropical cyclones fairly close (less than 1000 kilometers) to the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa, developing into hurricanes before reaching the Caribbean. Chance of Precipitation (COP) The chance that measurable precipitation (0.2 mm of rain or 0.2 cm of snow) will fall on any random point of the forecast region during the forecast period.

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Moist air is forced up the mountains bringing both cloud and precipitation to the windward side. The descending air becomes warmer and drier as it is forced down the leeward (sheltered) side of the mountains.

The relatively warm, dry, gusty winds that occasionally occur to the leeward side of mountain ranges around the world are known by many names. In the southern states, they are known as Santa Ana and in parts of Europe, John winds.

Cirrus White patches of cloud composed of ice crystals, found at altitudes of 6,000 meters or higher. Fine and delicate, their shape and texture often resemble a mare’s tail.

Climate The prevalent or characteristic weather conditions of a place or region over a period of years. Cloud A visible cluster of water droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere.

Partial concentration refers to the amount of a particular stage or of a particular form of ice, and represents only a part of the total. Concentration BoundaryCondensation The physical process through which water vapor becomes a liquid Consolidated Consolidated Ridge Sea-ice terminology, describing a ridge in which the base has frozen together.

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Coriolis Force An effect of the earth’s rotation that deflects the direction of any large moving object (including the wind) to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Criteria threshold(s) A set of values associated to weather or environmental factors that are used to issue an alert.

These clouds produce heavy rain showers, lightning, thunder and sometimes hail or tornadoes. (See thunderstorm) Cumulus Clouds Bright clouds that appear in fair weather, that have broad, horizontal bases, producing no precipitation and rarely covering more than one-half of the sky.

It is also called a depression, and is generally associated with poor or stormy weather. The point of the lowest atmospheric pressure marks the center of the cyclone.

It is a general term for ice which has been squeezed together, and in places, forced upwards and downwards. A general qualitative expression that indicates that the relative severity of prevailing ice conditions in a particular area are such that navigation will be difficult.

Down burst A strong convective downdraft resulting in an outward burst of often damaging winds at or near the surface. Draft A small, gusty current associated with the abrupt vertical movement of air.

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Dried Ice Sea-ice terminology that describes an ice surface from which water has disappeared after the formation of cracks and thaw holes ; during the period of drying the surface whitens. Drizzle Precipitation from stratus clouds, consisting of minute, fine water droplets which appear to float.

Dust Storm Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) when a prolonged period of reduced visibility caused by blowing dust (of one hour or more) is expected to occur, is imminent, or is occurring. It was adopted in Canada in April 2013, replacing the original Fajita Scale, or F-scale.

El Niño can be distinguished when the surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific extending westward from Ecuador become warmer than average. El Niño is like La Niña's brother, the totally opposite.

Extra tropical Cyclone A generic term for the class of frontal, low pressure systems coming from mid-to-low level latitudes (tropics). Eye of the Storm The roughly circular area of fairly light winds found at the center of a hurricane and surrounded by the eyeball.

The heaviest rain, the strongest winds, and worst turbulence is found in the eyeball. Fetch The distance wind, usually of uniform speed and direction, which blows over the water surface.

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First-year Flash Freeze Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for when a rapid drop in temperature to below freezing, results in significant ice on road surfaces. This ice is produced by the freezing of residual water from either melted snow or falling/fallen rain.

Fog Bank Fog generally caused by local conditions, which extends over a small area of some hundreds of meters across, and which reduces visibility to less than one-half (1/2) nautical miles (or five eighths (5/8) of a kilometer). Forecast A statement of expected meteorological and environmental conditions for a specified time or period, and for a specified area or portion of airspace.

Freezing Drizzle WarningFreezing Rain that freezes on impact to form a coating of clear ice (glaze) on the ground and on exposed objects. Freezing Spray Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) if freezing spray is forecast or observed to be moderate or severe.

Freezing spray is termed moderate if the ice accumulation or build-up rate on marine infrastructure is between 0.7 and 2 cm per hour. It is termed severe if the ice accumulation or build-up rate on marine infrastructure is greater than 2 cm per hour.

Frontal Cyclone Frost A deposit of ice crystals that forms through a process called sublimation. Frost Smoke Sea-ice terminology that describes fog-like clouds that are formed when cold air and relatively warm water come in contact with each other.

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It is typically vertically oriented and may extend fully or partially from a cumuli form cloud to the surface. Gale Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) if wind speed of 34 to 47 knots inclusive (gale force wind) is forecast or observed over a marine area.

Grease ice reflects little light, giving the water a matte appearance. Growler Sea-ice terminology that describes a piece of ice smaller than a Berry bit and floating less than 1 m above the sea surface.

Extending less than 1 m above the sea surface, and normally occupying an area of about 20 sq. Gulf Stream A warm, swift, narrow ocean current flowing parallel to the east coast of North America.

The current then turns and flows south of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and continues on towards Europe. They are characterized by the more or less continual fluctuations between the high (peak) and low (lull) speed.

Hail Precipitation in the form of lumps of ice mainly associated with thunderstorms. Hail in Canada occurs most frequently during the summer when thunderstorm activity is at its peak.

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Hazard A type of condition (weather or environmental) that has a negative impact on the safety and security of the public. Haze Consists of fine particles of dust and pollution suspended in the atmosphere, and is distinguished from fog by its bluish or yellowish tinge.

In the Northern Hemisphere, winds around a high move in a clockwise fashion. High Water Level Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) to warn mariners and coastal populations of potential impacts caused by abnormally high water levels, or waves along coastal or shoreline areas.

Humid ex The scale describing how hot, humid weather feels to the average person. Usually, relative humidity is expressed as a percentage of total possible moisture content.

Hummock Sea-ice terminology, meaning a hillock of broken ice which has been forced upwards by pressure; it may be fresh or weathered. Hurricane Force Wind Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for a wind speed of 64 knots (118 km/h) or greater is forecast or observed over a marine area.

By nature a hurricane also implies the threat of local flooding from heavy rainfall. This area may be global, hemispheric, or defined by a specific oceanographic entity such as Baffin Bay or the Barents Sea.

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Ice islands have a thickness of 30 m to 50 m, and an area of a few thousand square meters up to 500 sq. They are usually characterized by a regularly rolling surface giving a ribbed appearance from the air.

A climatology term that refers to the extreme minimum or extreme maximum extent of the ice edge in any given month or period, based on observations over a number of years. Ice Massif Sea-ice terminology that describes a variable accumulation of pack or very close pack, covering hundreds of square kilometers and found in the same region every summer.

Describes a brittle, shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing, or from grease ice, usually in water of low salinity; with a thickness of about 5 centimeters. Easily broken by wind or swell, it commonly breaks into rectangular pieces.

Describes a floating ice sheet of considerable thickness that is visible 2 meters or more above sea level, and is attached to the coast. They usually have great horizontal extension, and a level or gently rolling surface.

Ice shelf growth occurs with annual snow accumulation, and also by the extension of land glaciers oversee. Iceberg Tongue Sea-ice terminology describing a major accumulation of icebergs that are projecting toward the coast, held in place by grounding and joined together by fast ice.

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Isobar A line connecting points of equal pressure on a map. Heavily compacted, mostly due to wind action, a jammed brash barrier may extend 2 m to 20 m below the surface Jet Stream Relatively strong winds, concentrated within a narrowband in the upper atmosphere.

Kilopascal The internationally recognized unit used by the Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for measuring atmospheric pressure. Knot The unit of speed used in the marine environment, which is equal one (1) nautical mile per hour.

La Niña An extensive cooling of the waters in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. Large Iceberg Sea-ice terminology that describes a piece of glacier ice extending 46 m to 75 m above sea level, and with a length of 121 m to 200 m. Latent Heat that is stored in water vapor in the atmosphere.

Lead Sea-ice terminology describing any fracture or passageway through ice, which is navigable by surface vessels. Leeward A term that means, “is situated away from the wind;” in other words, downwind and opposite of windward.

Lightning Generally, any and all the various forms of visible electrical discharge that are produced by thunderstorms ; often seen as a bright flash of light in the sky. Lightning Flash Density The number of lightning flashes detected per square unit of area (usually per square kilometer or mile) and unit of time.

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Mean Ice Edge Sea-ice terminology that describes the average position of an ice edge in any given month or period, based on observations over a number of years. Describes the average position of the limit of icebergs at any given time, based on observations over a number of years.

Medium Iceberg Sea-ice terminology meaning a piece of glacier ice extending 16 m to 45 m above sea level, and with a length of 61 m to 120 meters. Menopause Top of the mesosphere situated at about 80-85 km above Earth’s surface.

Average global sea level pressure is about 1013 millibars (101.3 kilopascals). Mist Very small to microscopic-sized water droplets that are suspended in the atmosphere, usually in association with precipitation, and causing obstruction to visibility from one-half (1/2) to five (5) nautical miles, inclusive.

The melt pattern consists of large, interconnecting, irregular puddles and a well-developed drainage system. Describes a thin, elastic crust of gray-colored ice that is formed on a calm sea, and is easily bent by waves and thrust into a pattern of interlocking fingers (known as finger rafting).

Open Drift Sea-ice terminology which describes floating ice in which the concentration is 4/10 to 6/10, with many leads and polygons. Openings in the Other Surface Feature DefinitionsOutlook A term used by meteorologists to refer to anticipated weather conditions in the future.

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Perigee (Lunar) The point in the moon’s orbit that is closest to the Earth. Polar Low An intense storm system that usually forms in polar regions during outbreaks of very cold air, over relatively warmer ocean waters.

Typically, spanning from 400 to 800 kilometers across, and usually existing for only one or two days, polar lows can result in severe blizzard -like conditions, with heavy snow and gales force winds over affected marine areas. These values do not account for effects such as wind, atmospheric pressure, or waves.

Puddle Sea-ice terminology that describes an accumulation of water on ice, mainly due to melting snow. It is used in the meteorological environment to detect and locate the presence of clouds and precipitation.

Rafting Sea-ice terminology describing the pressure process whereby one piece of ice overrides another. Rain Moisture condensed from atmospheric vapor that falls to earth in drops.

On floating ice, the ridges are parallel to the direction of the wind that was present at the time they were formed. Sea Fog which forms in the lower part of a relatively moist and warm air mass as it moves over a relatively cooler water surface.

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Sea SmokeS ea State Overall state of agitation of a large expanse of ocean or sea due to the combined effects of wind-generated waves, swell waves, and surface currents. Severe Thunderstorm Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) when at least one thunderstorm that produces hail large enough to cause damage (at least 2 cm in diameter), heavy rain, and/or damaging winds, is imminent.

Shoal A place where the depth of water is shallow, especially where the seafloor is visible at low tide. Shula Sea-ice terminology meaning an accumulation of spongy white ice lumps that have a diameter of a few centimeters across.

Describes the thin places in an ice canopy, usually less than 1 meter thick, that appear from below as light, translucent patches in dark surroundings. Slush Sea-ice terminology describing snow which is saturated and mixed with water on land, on ice surfaces, or as a thick floating mass in water, after a heavy snowfall.

Small Iceberg Sea-ice terminology that describes a piece of glacier ice extending 5 m to 15 m above sea level, and with a length of 15 m to 60 meters. Smoke Suspension in the atmosphere of small particles, which are produced by fire.

Snow Precipitation of ice crystals, isolated or as part of a cluster, falling from a cloud. They are often accompanied by snowflakes or rain drops, when the surface temperature is around zero Celsius.

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Snow Squall A moderate to heavy snow flurry, which is driven by strong, gusty winds. Snow Squall Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for localized, limited duration, intense snowfall that reduces visibility significantly and may be accompanied by strong, gusty winds and (in some cases) lightning.

These weather conditions are produced by the passage of cold air over an open body of water (open water squall) or the passage of a cold front (frontal snow squall). Snowfall Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for an expected snowfall that is heavy enough to cause significant inconvenience and hazardous conditions.

Special Weather Statement A type of alert from Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) where: (2) A warning or watch is not yet practical to issue because of the high degree of uncertainty of occurrence, location and/or timing of the possible hazardous condition(s).

A special weather statement can be used to describe any hazard (unlike an advisory). The statements do not have a formal “in effect” status, since there is no requirement to update or end them.

Spicule A spike of ice that has needle-like crystals, which is formed during the freezing of water. Spiral Rain BandsSquall An atmospheric phenomenon characterized by an abrupt and large increase of wind speed within a duration of minutes, that suddenly diminishes.

Squalls are usually associated with thunderstorms, and as such are often accompanied by heavy showers, thunder, and lightning. Squall Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for forecast or observed wind gusts of 34 knots or greater, that are associated with a line, or an organized area, of thunderstorms.

Stages of Development of Lake Restages of Development of Sea Restages of MeltingStanding Floe Sea-ice terminology that describes a separate floe standing vertically or inclined, and enclosed by rather smooth ice. Storm Surge The positive or negative difference in sea level from the predicted astronomical tide, due to the forces of the atmosphere.

The two main atmospheric components that contribute to a storm surge are air pressure and wind. Storm Surge Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for abnormally high water levels and high waves (storm surge) caused by a storm, expected to be a significant threat to public safety and property because of the potential for coastal flooding.

Storm Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) if wind speed of between 48 and 63 knots inclusive, is forecast or observed over a marine area. Tropopause A boundary or zone of transition separating the stratosphere and the mesosphere ; it marks a reversal of temperature change with altitude.

StratosphereStratus Generally gray cloud layer with a fairly uniform base, which may produce drizzle, ice prisms or snow grains. Describes a long narrow area of pack/drift ice, about one (1) km or less in width, usually composed of small fragments detached from the main mass of ice, which run together under the influence of wind, swell or current.

Strong Wind Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) if a wind speed of 20 to 33 knots inclusive, is forecast or observed over coastal or inland water bodies during the recreational boating season. Sublimation The process by which solids are transformed directly to the state of vapor or vice versa, without passing through the liquid phase.

Subtropical Ridge A large belt of high pressure located around 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres, and characterized by mostly calm winds. Air flows out from the ridge toward the upper and lower latitudes of each hemisphere, creating both the trade winds and the westerlies.

Swell Undulating movement of the sea surface that persists after the originating cause (wind-generated waves) of the motion has ceased. Other factors, such as the predictability of an event, and the ability of the public and media to receive notice of the message, may influence the actual lead times provided.

Terms Related to Submarine NavigationTerms Related to Surface ShippingThaw Holes Sea-ice terminology describing vertical holes in the ice that are formed when surface puddles melt through to the underlying water. Thermosphere Layer of the Earth's atmosphere, above the menopause, in which the temperature generally increases with height.

This burst of lightning expands air around it, producing an effect similar to an explosion, thus creating the noise. The movement is caused by the difference of the gravitational attraction between celestial bodies and the centrifugal acceleration of their rotation, and is periodic because it is related to the motion of the sun, earth, and moon.

Tongue Sea-ice terminology meaning an extension of the ice edge up to several kilometers in length, caused by wind or current. A tornado is typically also made visible by rotating debris near the ground or a spray ring near the water surface.

A tornado can be tens to hundreds of meters wide and have a lifespan of minutes or hours. Canada has the second highest tornado occurrence rate in the world, behind the United States.

In Canada, tornadoes occur mostly on the Prairies and in southern Ontario with a peak frequency in late June and July. Tornado Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC), when at least one tornado is imminent, as indicated by observations, reports and/or radar scans.

Tornado Warning (Marine) A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC), when tornadoes are forecast or observed over a localized marine area, or when an existing tornado is moving from land to an adjacent marine area. Tornado Watches A watch issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) when severe thunderstorms are forecast, and conditions are favorable for one or more tornadoes to be spawned from those thunderstorms within a defined “watch zone.” Tornado Watch (Marine) A watch issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) to give advance notice of conditions that are favorable for the localized development of tornadoes over, or in the vicinity of a marine area.

Trade Winds (also called Tropical Easterlies) The belts of wind on either side of the equator, blowing from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. The driving mechanism for a tropical cyclone is the release of latent heat.

Tropical Cyclone Information Statement Routine bulletins issued by Environment Canada ’s Canadian Hurricane Center (CHC) when a tropical cyclone could bring high winds or seas to Canadian waters; or high winds, heavy rain, dangerous coastal waves, or coastal storm surges to Canadian territory within the next 72 hours. Tropical Disturbance An organized region of showers and thunderstorms in the tropics, generally 200 km to 600 km in diameter, that maintains its identity for at least 24 hours but does not have a circular wind circulation.

Tropical Easterlies (also called Trade Winds) The belts of wind on either side of the equator, blowing from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. Tropical Storm Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) indicating that tropical storm conditions, including possible sustained winds within the range 63 km-117 km/h, are expected in specified areas within 24 hours or less.

By nature, a tropical storm warning also implies the threat of local flooding from heavy rainfall. TropopauseTroposphere The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, in which air temperature falls steadily with increasing altitude.

Tsunami A gravitational sea wave produced by any large-scale, short-duration disturbance of the ocean floor. Typhoon The name given to hurricanes in the western North Pacific Ocean, west of the International Date Line.

Most of the ultraviolet component of sunlight is absorbed by the ozone layer of the atmosphere, however UV-B radiation can cause sunburn and skin cancer, and UV-A radiation can cause photosensitivity reactions and possibly skin cancer. Unstable A turbulent, convective state in the atmosphere, resulting from a rapid decrease in air temperature with the altitude.

It is the local time at the Greenwich meridian (0°), situated in the United Kingdom. From the “Z” suffix came the mnemonic “Zulu” (as used in international marine communications standards).

Vertical wind shear can weaken or destroy a tropical cyclone, by interfering with its symmetric nature and organization. Describes a piece of glacier ice that extends more than 75 m above sea level, and has a length of more than 200 meters.

Virgo Wisps or streaks of precipitation that evaporate before reaching the ground. Visibility The greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions can be seen and recognized against the horizon sky during daylight.

It could also be seen and recognized during the night if the general illumination were raised to the normal daylight level. Warning A type of alert issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC), where a hazardous weather or environmental event that poses a significant threat to public safety and property is certain or imminent.

Watch A type of alert issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC), where conditions are favorable for the development of weather or an environmental hazard that poses a significant threat to public safety and property, but the occurrence, location, and/or timing of the expected hazardous condition(s) is still too uncertain to issue a warning. It is intended to heighten public awareness of the potential impact of the event, and serves as a lead-up to a warning.

It describes dark streaks on the underside of low clouds, indicating the presence of water features, in the vicinity of ice. Unlike tornadoes over land, they can occur frequently in the fall months when water temperatures remain warm relative to air temperatures in the lower atmosphere.

Waterspout Watch A watch issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) to give advance notice when conditions are favorable for the development of waterspouts over a marine area. Weather The condition of the troposphere (lower atmosphere) at any particular time and place.

Describes the processes of ablation and accumulation, which gradually eliminate irregularities in an ice surface. Westerlies The dominant west-to-east motion of the atmosphere, centered over the middle latitudes of both hemispheres.

Wind The horizontal movement of air, relative to the earth's surface. Wind Chill that results from a specific combination of wind speed and air temperature, expressed by the loss of body heat in watts per square meter (of skin).

Wind Chill Index used to determine the relative discomfort resulting from a specific combination of wind speed and air temperature, expressed by the loss of body heat in watts per square meter (of skin). Wind Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for sustained winds of speeds that pose a significant threat to public safety and property.

Winter Storm Warning A warning issued by Environment Canada ’s Meteorological Service (MSC) for a major snowfall, or significant snowfall combined with freezing rain, strong winds, blowing snow, and/or extreme wind chill. The mix of these winter weather conditions poses a threat to public safety and property.

This area is, at times, subject to extremely violent southeast winds, which have been strong enough to blow railcars off their tracks. Describes the initial stage of fast ice formation consisting of Silas or young ice ; its width varying from a few meters up to 200 meters from the shoreline.

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