The Detroit Post
Monday, 29 November, 2021

For Weather Phenomenon

Carole Stephens
• Friday, 18 December, 2020
• 21 min read

While these patterns and events are necessary for our planet to continue to be life-sustaining, they can also cause substantial damage and sometimes cost billions of dollars in repair and rescue efforts. Weather phenomena can be defined as natural events that occur as a result of one or a combination of the water cycle, pressure systems and the Coriolis effect.

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Defined by visibility and not amounts of snowfall, blizzards pose a substantial threat to travel and safety. Fog is a fascinating event that occurs when the air temperature cools and condenses water molecules from a gas to a liquid.

Giant walls of dust that form in desert areas in front of a thunderstorm cell. They are created by downward thrusts of cold air inside the storm cell, which blows sand and dust outward.

Forming at high altitudes in massive Cumulonimbus clouds, hail can grow as big as 8 inches or more and fall at velocities over 100 miles per hour. While less spectacular and less visible than other weather phenomena, heat waves can be considered among the most dangerous to humans and animals.

Capable of voltage upwards of 1 Billion volts, lightning is spectacularly brilliant and dangerous at the same time. The object of a substantial number of poems and Christmas carols, snow can be calming, peaceful, damaging or dangerous depending on circumstances.

When an unstable atmosphere gives way to Cumulonimbus clouds, and large electrical imbalances begin to form a thunderstorm is near. Tornadoes require several conditions to develop, including a wind speed that increases with altitude and then a supercell.

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Advection The horizontal transport of some property of the atmosphere or ocean, such as thermal energy, humidity, or salinity. In the context of meteorology, the related term convection generally refers to vertical transport.

Actinoform Describing a collection of low-lying, radially structured clouds with distinct shapes (resembling leaves or wheels in satellite imagery), and typically organized in extensive fields over marine environments. Aerobiology The branch of biology that studies airborne organic particles, such as bacteria, viruses, fungal spores, pollen grains, and very small insects, which are passively transported by the air.

Aerosol A suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas. Ageostrophyair current Any concentrated area of winds that develops due to differences in pressure and/or temperature between adjacent air parcels.

They are generally divided into horizontal and vertical currents and exist at a variety of scales and in various layers of the atmosphere. Such storms move relatively slowly, are short-lived, and often exist only as single cells (rather than in long continuous lines or complexes), but may still produce lightning and heavy rainfall.

They derive their energy from solar radiation and commonly develop in temperate zones during summer afternoons. Altocumulus castellanusaltocumulusaltostratusAmerican Meteorological Society (AMS) analytic wind anemometer A scientific instrument used to measure wind speed.

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Annular tropical cyclone anticyclone Any large-scale air mass characterized by outward spiraling winds which circulate around a strong center of high atmospheric pressure. Surface-based anticyclones generally bring about cool, dry air and clear skies and are often implicated in weather phenomena such as fog and haze.

Most of these storms occur between June 1 and November 30 each year, a time period referred to as the Atlantic hurricane season. Atmosphere The various layers of gases surrounding the Earth and held in place by gravity.

Atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure vary across a series of distinct sublayer including the troposphere and stratosphere. All meteorological phenomena are a consequence of the atmospheric circulation, which manifests as a network of both latitudinal and longitudinal “cells” of convective activity; together with ocean circulation, these cells are the primary means by which thermal energy from the Sun is redistributed across the Earth's surface.

FAS were issued three times daily, valid for 18 hours, and covered an area the size of several states. They were replaced by Graphic Area Forecasts (Gas) in 2017. Backscatter The diffuse reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the same direction from which they originated.

Back scattering is the principle underlying all weather radar systems, which can distinguish radar returns back scattered from target aerosols such as raindrops and snowflakes because the strength of the returns depends largely on the size and reflectivity of the targets. Barbsbarograph A scientific instrument used to measure and record changes in atmospheric pressure over time.

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Areas of high atmospheric baroclinic are generally found in the temperate and polar latitudes and are characterized by the frequent formation of cyclones. Blizzard A severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least 35 mph (56 km/h) and typically lasting three hours or more.

They can have an immense size, covering hundreds or thousands of square miles, and occur most often in temperate, polar, or mountainous regions during the winter. A nearly stationary pattern in the atmospheric pressure field overlying a large geographic area, which effectively “blocks” or diverts the movements of cyclones and other convective systems.

These blocks can remain in place for days or weeks, causing the areas affected by them to experience the same kind of weather for extended periods of time. The distinct bow shape is a result of the focusing of a strong flow at the rear of the system.

Buys Ballot's law Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (CMOS) The national society of individuals and organizations dedicated to advancing atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related environmental disciplines in Canada, officially constituted in 1967. Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC) capping inversioncastellanus A cloud species that displays at least in its upper part cumuli form protuberances resembling the turrets of a castle, giving a crenelated aspect.

Ceiling A measure of the height above the Earth's surface of the base of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that covers more than half of the sky (more than four okras). Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS) central dense overcast (CDO) The large, centralized, contiguous area of thunderstorms surrounding the rotational center of a strong tropical or subtropical cyclone.

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The strongest winds and heaviest rainfall are usually found beneath the coldest cloud tops in the CDO. Chinook windcirrocumuluscirrostratuscirrus (Ci) A genus of cloud characterized by thin, wispy, feather-like strands that appear white or light grey and form at very high altitudes, usually between 5 and 13.7 km (16,000 and 45,000 ft) above sea level.

It is similar to glaze and hard rime and, when formed on the ground, is often called black ice. Clear-air turbulence climate The statistics of weather in a given region over long periods of time, measured by assessing long-term patterns of variation in temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind, precipitation, and other meteorological variables.

The climate of a particular location is generated by the interactions of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crosshair, lithosphere, and biosphere and strongly influenced by latitude, altitude, and local topography. Climates are often classified according to the averages or typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation.

A branch of the atmospheric sciences that studies climate, defined as weather conditions averaged over an extended to indefinite period of time. Cloud An aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals or other particles suspended in the atmosphere.

On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of the saturation of an air mass when it is cooled to its dew point or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are caused by the diffraction of sunlight or moonlight by thin, uniform layers of very small water droplets or ice crystals.


Cloud species Any of a set of 14 Latin terms used to describe the shape and internal structure of troposphericclouds. Any of a set of Latin names used to classify and identify clouds occurring in the troposphere, typically by characteristics such as their altitude, shape, and convective activity.

It generally takes the shape of a saddle in which the air pressure is slightly higher than that within the low-pressure regions but still lower than that within the anticyclonic zones. Cold fronts lie within a sharp surface trough of low pressure and the temperature difference between the air masses they separate can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

When enough moisture or instability is present, lines of rain or thunderstorms may accompany the boundary as it moves. In surface weather analysis, cold fronts are symbolized by a blue line with triangles pointing in the direction of travel.

A period of weather characterized by excessively low temperatures, which may or may not also be accompanied by changes in humidity. Cold-core low Colorado low A type of low-pressure area that forms in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico, in the United States, and then proceeds to move east across the Great Plains, often producing heavy snow and ice when occurring in the winter.

Convective outlooks convective storm detectionconvergenceconvergence zone corona An optical phenomenon consisting of apparent concentric, pastel-colored rings around a bright celestial object (such as the Sun or the Moon), which are produced by the diffraction of light by individual water droplets or sometimes small ice crystals in a cloud or on a foggy glass surface. Cumulonimbuscumulus (Cu) A genus of cloud characterized by low-level “puffy” or “cotton-like” forms with flat bases (generally opaque white but sometimes with gray undersides), which occur individually or multiply in a variety of distinct subforms, usually at altitudes less than 2 km (6,600 ft) above sea level.

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Cumulus congestuscumulus humiliscumulus mediocre Very large air masses (and the clouds within them) spiral counterclockwise around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure in this extratropicalcyclone over Iceland cyclone Any large-scale air mass characterized by inward spiraling winds which circulate around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclogenesis may refer to a number of different processes that occur under a variety of conditions and at a variety of scales, all of which result in the formation of some sort of cyclone ; for instance, tornadoes are a type of mesocyclone whose development may be variously described as cyclogenesis or, more specifically, tornado genesis.

A type of specialized eyewear used by meteorologists and astronomers for adapting the eyes to the dark prior to an observation made at night, or for aiding with identification of clouds during bright sunshine or when there is a glare from snow. Dawndaytime The period of the day between sunrise and sunset, during which any given point on the Earth experiences natural illumination from especially direct sunlight, known as daylight.

A small dew point depression indicates more moisture and higher relative humidity, which in the lower troposphere can result in low cloud bases and lifted condensation levels, which are important factors contributing to the development of severe thunderstorms. Diffluence The elongation of a fluid body, such as an air mass, normal to the flow (streamline divergence).

Diffuse sky radiationdisdrometer A scientific instrument used to measure the and velocity of falling hydrometers such as raindrops. Down bursts are created when rain -cooled air descends rapidly, and can produce very strong damaging winds.

Dry line dry microburstdry punch Meteorological slang for a or message weather process. Dry season An annual period of relatively low or infrequent precipitation, during which weather patterns are typically dominated by lengthy periods of high atmospheric pressure, high temperatures, and low humidity.

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Dual polarization weather radarduskdust devil dust storm Also called a duster or rendered dust storm. A meteorological phenomenon characterized by very strong winds that blow dust-filled air over an extensive area.

Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose dirt, sand, and/or small rocks from a dry surface into the atmosphere, drastically reducing visibility. Though the term is sometimes restricted to storms occurring over normally arable land suffering from drought, it is also used interchangeably with sandstorm and haboob.

Echo On a radar display, the appearance of the radio signal that is scattered or reflected by a target. Human lumberman spiralEkman transportenergy-helicity index (Hi) El Niño The warm phase of the (ENSO), associated with the annual development of a band of warm ocean water in the eastern equatorial Pacific, which brings low pressure and heavy rainfall to the coasts of Central and South America.

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) An irregular long-term periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean which affects the climate of most of the world but especially the tropics and subtropics in a cycle lasting years or decades. The phenomenon, a consequence of the Walker circulation, is marked by two phases: a warming phase, El Niño, during which sea temperatures are above average over a large part of the eastern Pacific Ocean, driving high pressure and dry weather in Asia and low pressure and heavy precipitation in the Americas; and a cooling phase, La Niña, during which sea temperatures are below average in the eastern Pacific and the reverse weather pattern occurs.

Each phase can last for several years, with local seasonal weather patterns recurring predictably, though there are also long intervals of “neutral” or average conditions when neither El Niño nor La Niña is active. Emagram One of four thermodynamic diagrams used to display temperature lapse rate and moisture content profiles in the atmosphere.

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Temperature and dew point data from radiosondes are plotted on these diagrams to allow calculations of convective stability or. Eye A typically circular region at the center of a strong tropical cyclone that is the location of the storm's lowest barometric pressure.

Fire whirls are seldom classified as true tornadoes, as their vorticity usually derives from turbulent surface winds and heat-induced lifting rather than from a tornado mesocyclone aloft. Firestorms develop when a convective updraft of hot air rising from the burning area draws in strong wind gusts from all directions, which supply the fire with additional oxygen and thereby induce further combustion.

Fog A visible aerosol of minute water droplets or ice crystals that is suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Fog is often considered a type of low-lying cloud and is heavily influenced by local topography, nearby bodies of water, and wind conditions.

A springtime thaw of snow and ice that produces a significant local inundation of rivers, streams, small watercourses, and floodplains as the snowpack melts within a watershed.2. Any temporarily inundated or rapidly flowing watercourse or newly created (and often ephemeral) drainage channel resulting from Snowbelt.

Weather fronts are the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics, often bringing with them clouds, precipitation, and changes in wind speed and direction as they move. Frontogenesis The meteorological process by which a weather front is created, usually as a result of the narrowing of one or more horizontal temperature gradients across the boundary between two adjacent air masses.

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Funnel clouds form most frequently in association with supercell thunderstorms and often develop into tornadoes. GlazeGPS meteorology A type of observational meteorology that interprets the effects of atmospheric properties such as total precipitate water vapor on the propagation of Global Positioning System (GPS) radio signals to derive information about the state of the local atmosphere.

Grease ice green flash ground blizzard A weather condition that occurs when loose snow or ice on the ground is lifted and blown into the air by strong winds. Hail formation requires environments with strong, upward motion of air and low altitudes at which water freezes, which makes it possible within most thunderstorms.

A weather index that measures the potential for dry, unstable air to contribute to the development of large or erratic wild land fires. Very hot weather is often only referred to as a heat wave if the temperature is abnormal relative to the typical climate for a given location during a given season.

A rectorial visual representation of the movement of a body or a fluid, with the position of any data plotted on it proportional to the velocity of the moving particle. Hook echo horseshoe vortex humidity A measure of the amount of water vapor present in a parcel of air.

By quantifying the saturation of the air with moisture, humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog occurring. Three primary measurements of humidity are widely employed in meteorology: absolute, relative, and specific.

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Hurricane huntershuaico A mudslide or flash flood caused by torrential rainfall occurring high in the Andes mountains of South America, especially during the weather phenomenon known as El Niño. Hydrometeor Any particulate of liquid or solid water within the atmosphere, encompassing all types of precipitation, formations due to condensation such as clouds and haze, and particles blown from the Earth's surface by wind such as blowing snow and sea spray.

Hydrometeorology A branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between land surfaces and the lower atmosphere. Hydrosphere The combined mass of all solid, liquid, and gaseous forms of water found on, beneath, or above the surface of the Earth, including all oceans, lakes, streams, groundwater, atmospheric water vapor, snow, ice caps, and glaciers.

Hygroscopyhypsometer A scientific instrument used to measure height or elevation, either by trigonometry or by the principle that atmospheric pressure influences the boiling point of liquids. Its natural occurrence in weather phenomena takes many forms, including snowflakes, hail, frost, icicles, and ice spikes.

Icebergice accretion indicator ice crystals ice fog ice pellets ice spike A rare ice formation that consists of a long, slender projection of ice extending upward from the surface of a frozen body of water, often in the shape of an inverted icicle. IncusIndian summer inflow The influx of heat and moisture into a storm system from the surrounding environment.

The inflow of parcels of warm, moist air drives and sustains most types of storms, including thunderstorms and tropical cyclones. Jet streams A narrow, fast-flowing, meandering air current primarily occurring in the upper part of the troposphere, at altitudes above 9 km (30,000 ft), and usually flowing from west to east.

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The local name for a dry, hot, seasonal wind, often carrying large quantities of dust or sand, that occurs in the deserts of Egypt, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. Köppen's climate classification Dr{\display style L_{DR}}Lagrangian equations La Niñalake-effect snow A weather phenomenon produced when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, which causes the lowest layers of air to pick up warm water vapor from the lake, rise through the upper layers, freeze and then precipitate on the lake's leeward shores.

In combination with geographic lift, the effect produces narrow but very intense bands of precipitation, especially snow, which can deposit at very high rates and result in very large amounts of snowfall over a region. Landslidelandspout A type of tornado emerging from a parent cloud that does not contain a pre-existing mid-level mesocyclone or other rotation.

They are generally smaller and weaker than supercell tornadoes and are rarely detected by Doppler weather radar. Lee trough lee wavelet technique A method used by meteorologists which focuses on updrafts and uses weather radar to determine the relative strength of thunderstorm cells in a vertically sheared environment.

Lenticular cloud A type of stationary cloud with a distinct lens or saucer shape which typically forms in an arrangement perpendicular to the wind direction and at altitudes less than 12 kilometers (39,000 ft) above sea level, most commonly above or near very large natural obstructions in the atmosphere, such as mountains and hills. Air masses with one or many FCS are potentially unstable and may develop convective clouds such as cumulonimbus.

Light pillar lightning A naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions of the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, instantaneously releasing about a billion joules of energy across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from very hot plasma to brilliant flashes of light visible in the atmosphere. The primary electron-conducting channel in such discharges, visible for a fraction of a second as a very bright, “zigzagging” path of light, is sometimes called a lightning bolt.

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Major A North American system used in the transmission of marine weather forecasts to compress large amounts of information about meteorological and marine conditions, including visibility, expected future wind speed and direction, the “state of sea”, and the period of validity of the forecast, into shorter code for convenience during radio broadcasting. Marine cloud brightening marine stratocumulusmass flow The movement of a fluid, such as an air mass, down a pressure or temperature gradient.

The lower boundary of the mesosphere varies between 50 and 65 km (31 and 40 mi) above the Earth's surface, depending on latitude and time of year. Mini-tornado A fallacious term often used in news media to refer to damaging winds accompanying a thunderstorm, indifferently caused by tornadoes or micro burst, on a small area.

Any seasonal change in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. In this context, the term is often used to refer specifically to the rainy phase of such a pattern, and in some places colloquially (and less correctly) to any locally very heavy but short-term rainfall.

Needle icenephelometernephoscope A scientific instrument used to measure the altitude, direction, and velocity of atmospheric clouds. The name derives from the direction of the winds that most strongly affect the eastern seaboard between the months of October and March.

Such storms are often accompanied by very heavy rain or snow, which can cause severe coastal flooding, and hurricane-force winds. A conspicuous high-altitude arch-shaped cloud formation that appears regularly in otherwise clear blue skies above the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, when a strong, hot, northwesterly John wind (known as “The Nor'wester”) pushes cooling moist air over the Southern Alps.

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Ocean currentokta A unit of measurement used to describe the amount of cloud cover at a given location in terms of how many eighths of the sky are covered in clouds, ranging from 0 okras (completely clear) to 8 (completely overcast) or sometimes 9 okras (indicating that the sky is obstructed from view). The type of cloud cover that qualifies as overcast is distinguished from obscuring surface-level phenomena such as fog.

Outflow typically radiates from thunderstorms in the form of a wedge of rain-cooled air, which is often delineated by a low, thick cloud preceded by a gust front, apparent both from the ground and in weather radar imagery. The altitude at which the outflow occurs is strongly correlated with the intensity and persistence of large storm systems such as tropical cyclones.

A region of the Earth's atmosphere containing relatively high concentrations of the gaseous chemical ozone (O 3) and which is responsible for absorbing more than 97 percent of the Sun's incoming medium-frequency ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The ozone layer is found mainly in the lower portion of the stratosphere, between approximately 15 and 35 kilometers (9.3 and 21.7 mi) in altitude, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically.

Particularly Dangerous Situation pascal (Pa) The SI derived unit of pressure, defined as one newton per square meter. Photometeor Any bright object or other optical phenomenon appearing in the Earth's atmosphere when sunlight or moonlight creates a reflection, refraction, diffraction, or interference under particular circumstances.

Common examples of photometers include halos, corona, rainbows, crepuscular rays, and sun dogs. Phi_DP (GDP{\display style \Phi _{DP}}) pileuspilot balloon pilot report (Prep) polar low polar mesosphere clouds polar stratospheric cloud polar vortex Either of the two very large, persistent, rotating, upper-level low-pressure areas suspended in the Earth's atmosphere near the geographic poles.

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When either vortex is weak, high-pressure zones of lower latitudes may push pole ward, driving the vortex, jet stream, and masses of cold, dry polar air into the mid-latitudes, which can cause sudden, dramatic drops in temperature known as cold waves. Precipitation Any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls by gravity, the main forms of which include rain, sleet, snow, hail, and grape.

High- and low-pressure systems evolve by the interactions of temperature, moisture, and solar radiation in the atmosphere, and are directly responsible for most local weather phenomena. Rainbandrainbowraindrop size distribution (DSD) rain and snow mixed rain gauge Also called an odometer, audiometer, and barometer.

An instrument used to collect and measure the amount of liquid precipitation that occurs within a certain area over a certain period of time. Rain of animals rain shadow A relatively and consistently dry area on the leeward side of a significant geographic uplift such as a mountain range.

Rain shadows exist because the mountains act as a barrier to the passage of precipitation -producing weather systems: moist air masses crossing areas of high elevation are forced upward by geographic lift, which causes the moisture to condense and precipitate on the windward side and leaves the air depleted of moisture by the time it reaches the leeward side. In meteorology, satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies are widely used to detect and classify objects on the surface or within the atmosphere or oceans based on propagated electromagnetic signals.

An elongated region of relatively high atmospheric pressure, almost always associated with an area of maximum anticyclonic curvature of wind flow. A rating system used to classify hurricanes (tropical cyclones in the Western Hemisphere) into one of five categories according to the intensity of their sustained winds, measured as the maximum sustained wind speed averaged over a one-minute interval at an altitude of 10 meters above the surface.

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Category 1, the lowest rating on the scale, indicates average sustained wind speeds of 33–42 meters per second (64–82 kn; 74–94 mph), where the lower limit is also used to define the distinction between a tropical storm and a hurricane; Category 5, the highest rating, indicates wind speeds of 70 meters per second (136 kn; 157 mph) or more. Sea breeze sea spray Aerosol particles formed directly by the ocean, mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles at the air-sea interface.

Sea state season Any division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and the duration of daylight. Seasons result from the Earth's orbit around the Sun and its axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane.

Severe thunderstorm severe weather Any dangerous meteorological phenomena with the potential to cause damage on the ground surface, serious social disruption, or loss of human life. There are many types of severe weather, including strong winds, excessive precipitation, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tropical cyclones, blizzards, and wildfires.

Skipping tornadosleetslush A slurry mixture of small ice crystals (such as snow) and liquid water. Snow occurs when particles in the atmosphere attract super cooled water droplets, which nucleate and freeze into hexagonal crystals known as snowflakes ; upon reaching the ground it may then accumulate into snowpack or snowdrifts and, over time, metamorphose by sintering, sublimation, and freeze-thaw mechanisms.

A phenomenon in which large snowballs form naturally as clumps of snow are blown along the ground by strong winds, growing larger as they accumulate material along the way. Snowbelt A region near the Great Lakes of North America where heavy snowfall in the form of lake-effect snow is particularly common.

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Snowflakesnowsquall A sudden, moderately heavy snowfall characterized by strong surface wind gusts and blowing snow. Snowstorm A type of winter storm accompanied particularly by heavy precipitation in the form of snow.

Sounding rocket specific humidityspindrift Sea spray blown from cresting waves during a gale. This spray “drifts” in the direction of the gale and is distinct enough that it is sometimes used to judge wind speed at sea.

Elmo's fire A weather phenomenon in which luminous plasma is created by a corona discharge at the tips of long, sharply pointed objects in a strong atmospheric electrical field, such as that generated by a thunderstorm. Station model stationary front steam devil Stevenson screen storm Any disturbed state of an environment or atmosphere especially affecting the ground surface and strongly implying severe weather.

Storms are characterized by significant disruptions to normal atmospheric conditions, which can result in strong wind, heavy precipitation, and/or thunder and lightning (as with a thunderstorm), among other phenomena. Storm cell An air mass which contains up and down drafts in convective loops and which moves and reacts as a single entity.

A National Climatic Data Center (CDC) publication beginning in 1959 which details quality-controlled tornado and other severe weather summaries as the official NOAA record of such events. Storm shelter A type of underground bunker designed to protect the occupants from violent severe weather, particularly tornadoes.

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The lower boundary of the stratosphere varies between 7 and 20 km (4.3 and 12.4 mi) above the Earth's surface, depending on latitude. Stratussubtropical highsummerStüve diagram sun dog sunshine recordersunshower A meteorological phenomenon in which rain falls while the sun is shining.

Standard Tags are issued by major civil airfields at least four times a day (every six hours) and generally apply to a 24- or 30-hour period and an area within approximately 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) from the center of an airport runway complex. Tags complement and use similar encoding to Metal reports, but also take into account local geographic influences on weather.

Thermospherethunder The sound produced as a result of the sudden thermal expansion of air within and surrounding the channel of a lightning discharge. This expansion creates an audible supersonic shock wave that, depending on the listener's distance from the source, can range from a sharp, loud crack (sometimes called a thunderclap or peal of thunder) to a deep, sustained rumble.

A storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air, often along a front.

A rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both a parent cloud and the surface of the Earth. An area of high reflectivity detected by weather radar that is caused by large amounts of debris being lofted into the air, which is often indicative of a tornado.

Tornado warning tornado watchTornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) TORRO scaleTotable Tornado Observatory (TOTO) trace An amount of precipitation or snow cover that is too small to reliably or accurately measure. Trainingtropical cyclone A very large, rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressurecenter surrounded by a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and continuous spiral bands of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

The strongest systems can last for more than a week, span more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi) in diameter, and cause significant damage to coastal regions with powerful winds, storm surges, and concentrated precipitation that leads to flooding. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone may be referred to by different names and categorized within a variety of classes.

The troposphere contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's total mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols. The average height of the troposphere above the Earth's surface varies between 6 and 18 km (3.7 and 11.2 mi) depending on latitude.

Trough An elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with a front. The indirect illumination of the lower atmosphere caused by the scattering of sunlight when the Sun itself is not directly visible because it is below the horizon.2.

Typhoon The local name for a tropical cyclone that occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. Upper-air chartupper-air soundingupper-level lowupper-level outflowupslope fog urban heat island (UHF) An urban or metropolitan area within which air temperatures are significantly warmer than in surrounding rural or uninhabited areas as a result of human activities, especially the artificial modification of land surfaces and the generation of waste heat by energy usage.

US Standard AtmosphereUniversity Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) valley breeze valley exit jet vertical draft See updraft. Vertically integrated liquid (Oil) An estimate of the total mass of precipitation contained in a cloud, obtained by measuring the intensity of radar echoes returned from the atmosphere.

Vortices are a major component of turbulence and may be observed in many types of meteorological phenomena, including the winds surrounding a tropical cyclone, tornado, or dust devil. Strati form clouds, fog, and steady rain with occasional thunderstorms often precede the boundary as it moves.

In surface weather analysis, warm fronts are symbolized by a red line with semicircles pointing in the direction of travel. Water vapor is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, being continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation, and plays a major role in numerous meteorological processes.

Waterspoutweak echo region (We) weather The state of the atmosphere at a given time and location. A high-altitude balloon used to carry scientific instruments into the atmosphere, which then measure, record, and transmit information about meteorological variables such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed by means of a radiosonde or other measurement device, often one which is expendable.

Weather forecasting The application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere at a given time and location. Forecasting is important to a wide variety of human activities, including business, agriculture, transportation, recreation and general health and safety, because it can be used to protect life and property.

Weather maps often use symbols such as station models to conveniently present complicated meteorological data. Wet-bulb temperaturewet-bulb globe temperature wet season whirlwind Any vertically oriented rotating vortex of air that develops as a result of turbulent air currents created by heating and flow gradients.

Wind occurs on a wide range of scales, from very strong thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes to milder local breezes lasting a few hours to global atmospheric circulations caused by the differential heating of the Equator and the poles and the Earth's rotation. There is no universally agreed-upon formula for measuring or calculating wind chill, though it is commonly reported as a temperature.

Instruments such as windsocks, weather vanes, and anemometers are commonly used to indicate wind direction. Changes in wind speed are often caused by air parcels being exposed to pressure and temperature gradients in the atmosphere.

Any meteorological event in which varieties of precipitation which can only occur at low temperatures are formed, such as snow, sleet, or freezing rain. Such events are not necessarily restricted to winter but may occur in late autumn or early spring, or very rarely in the summer, as well.

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