The Detroit Post
Sunday, 17 October, 2021

Do Amazon Own Twitch

Christina Perez
• Saturday, 02 January, 2021
• 39 min read

Whole Foods is a prominent grocery store chain with the distinction of being the only USDA-Certified Organic grocer in the United States. At the time of its acquisition by Amazon, Whole Foods was an independent company with a market cap of almost $10 billion.

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Type of Business: Footwear and apparel retailer Acquisition price: $1.2 billion Date it was purchased: November 2, 2009 The company is famed for its customer service, and its CEO Tony High released a bestseller in 2010 that details his management style, called Delivering Happiness.

Campos stands out among Amazon's many acquisitions because it was one of the company's first major expansions into a retail area beyond books. Founded in 2003, the company develops and manufactures robotic systems for a variety of uses and was independent at the time of its acquisition.

Amazon acquired the company in 2018 in a move that was seen as an effort to expand into the online prescription business. Aided by Amazon's extensive delivery network, the company's purchase of Pullback allows it to ship prescription medications overnight to locations across the country.

This shows if Amazon discloses data about the diversity of its board of directors, C-Suite, general management, and employees overall, across a variety of markers. Amazon Diversity & Inclusiveness ReportingRaceGenderAbilityVeteran StatusSexual OrientationBoard of DirectorsC-SuiteGeneral Management (U.S. Only)employees(U.S. Only) Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. Amazon's (NASDAQ:AMZN) Twitch remains the undisputed leader of the video game streaming market in the U.S. according to a new StreamElements report.

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Twitch has over 15 million daily active viewers who spend 95 minutes per day on the site. Twitch generates revenue in three main ways: ads, subscriptions, and cheer bits.

To support individual streamers, they can pay monthly subscription fees between $4.99 and $24.99, which unlock ad-free viewing, cosmetic upgrades (like custom colors, badges, and emoticons), special alerts, and access to exclusive streaming events. Viewers who don't want to commit to monthly subscriptions can also buy cheer bits to tip broadcasters.

Twitch also offers a Twitch Turbo subscription for $8.99 per month, which eliminates ads across the entire site, lets broadcasters store up to 60 days of content instead of 14 days, and adds cosmetic chat enhancements. But at the time of its acquisition, Vox estimated that Twitch generated at least $72 million in annual sales, with most of that revenue coming from ads.

Last year, Twitch disclosed that it generated about $500 million in annual ad revenue, and set an ambitious goal of doubling that figure to $1 billion. Twitch dominates the game streaming market because it has a first mover's advantage and it's the preferred platform for the industry's top streamers.

Second, StreamElements' report indicates that 75% of Twitch's viewership comes from people streaming its top 5,000 channels. Therefore, the vast majority of Twitch's streams barely have any viewers -- which could frustrate new streamers and send them to rival platforms like YouTube and Facebook.


Twitch won't become a major growth engine for Amazon alongside its e-commerce and cloud businesses anytime soon. But it still dominates a growing niche, enhances Amazon's other businesses, and capitalizes on the growth of the nascent esports market.

Parent Amazon URL twitch .TV CommercialYesRegistrationOptionalLaunchedJune 6, 2011; 9 years ago (2011-06-06)Current statusActiveThe popularity of Twitch eclipsed that of its general-interest counterpart. In October 2013, the website had 45 million unique viewers, :38 and by February 2014, it was considered the fourth largest source of peak Internet traffics in the United States.

Twitch acquired Curse in 2016, an operator of online video gaming communities and introduced means to purchase games through links on streams along with a program allowing streamers to receive commissions on the sales of games that they play. By 2015, Twitch had more than 100 million viewers per month.

As of 2017, Twitch remained the leading live-streaming video service for video games in the US, and had an advantage over YouTube Gaming. As of February 2020, it had 3 million broadcasters monthly and 15 million daily active users, with 1.4 million average concurrent users.

When Justin.TV was launched in 2007 by Justin Kan and Emmett Shear, the site was divided into several content categories. The gaming category grew especially fast, and became the most popular content on the site.

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In June 2011, :40 the company decided to spin off the gaming content as Twitch TV, inspired by the term twitch gameplay. It launched officially in public beta on June 6, 2011.

Since then, Twitch has attracted more than 35 million unique visitors a month. Twitch had about 80 employees in June 2013, which increased to 100 by December 2013.

The company was headquartered in San Francisco's Financial District. Investors during three rounds of fund-raising leading up to the end of 2013 included Draper Associates, Bessemer Venture Partners and Thrive Capital.

:40 In addition to the influx of venture funding, it was believed in 2013 that the company had become profitable. Especially since the shutdown of its direct competitor Own3d.TV in early 2013, Twitch has become the most popular e-sports streaming service by a large margin, leading some to conclude that the website has a “near monopoly on the market”.

Competing video services, such as YouTube and Dailymotion, began to increase the prominence of their gaming content to compete, but have had a much smaller impact so far. As of mid-2013, there were over 43 million viewers on Twitch monthly, with the average viewer watching an hour and a half a day.

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As of February 2014, Twitch is the fourth largest source of Internet traffic during peak times in the United States, behind Netflix, Google, and Apple. Twitch makes up 1.8% of total US Internet traffic during peak periods.

In late 2013, particularly due to increasing viewership, Twitch had issues with lag and low frame rates in Europe. Twitch has subsequently added new servers in the region.

Also in order to address these problems, Twitch implemented a new video system shown to be more efficient than the previous system. Initially, the new video system was criticized by users because it caused a significant stream delay, interfering with broadcaster-viewer interaction.

Twitch staff said that the increased delay was likely temporary and at the time, was an acceptable trade off for the decrease in buffering. On February 10, 2014, Twitch's parent company (Justin.TV, Inc.) was renamed Twitch Interactive, reflecting the increased prominence of the service over Justin.TV as the company's main business.

That same month, a stream known as Twitch Plays Pokémon, a crowdsourced attempt to play Pokémon Red using a system translating chat commands into game controls, went viral. By February 17, the channel reached over 6.5 million total views and averaged concurrent viewership between 60 and 70 thousand viewers with at least 10% participating.

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Vice President of Marketing Matthew Pietro praised the stream as “one more example of how video games have become a platform for entertainment and creativity that extends WAY beyond the original intent of the game creator. By merging a video game, live video and a participatory experience, the broadcaster has created an entertainment hybrid custom-made for the Twitch community.

This is a wonderful proof of concept that we hope to see more of in the future.” Beginning with its 2014 edition, Twitch was made the official live-streaming platform of the Electronic Entertainment Expo.

On May 18, 2014, Variety first reported that Google had reached a preliminary deal to acquire Twitch through its YouTube subsidiary for approximately US$1 billion. On August 5, 2014, the original Justin.TV site suddenly ceased operations, citing a need to focus resources entirely on Twitch.

On August 6, 2014, Twitch introduced an updated archive system, with multi-platform access to highlights from past broadcasts by a channel, higher quality video, increased server backups, and a new Video Manager interface for managing past broadcasts and compiling “highlights” from broadcasts that can also be exported to YouTube. Due to technological limitations and resource requirements, the new system contained several regressions; the option to archive complete broadcasts on an indefinite basis (“save forever”) was removed, meaning that they can only be retained for a maximum of 14 days, or 60 for partners and Turbo subscribers.

While compiled highlights can be archived indefinitely, they were limited to two hours in length. In addition, Twitch introduced a copyright fingerprinting system that would mute audio in archived clips if it detected a copyrighted song in the stream.

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On August 25, 2014, Amazon acquired Twitch Interactive for US$970 million. Sources reported that the rumored Google deal had fallen through and allowed Amazon to make the bid, with Forbes reporting that Google had backed out of the deal due to potential antitrust concerns surrounding it and its existing ownership of YouTube.

Take-Two Interactive, which owned a 2% stake at the time of the acquisition, made a windfall of $22 million. Under Amazon, Shear continued as chief executive officer of Twitch Interactive, with Sara Clemens added to the executive team as chief operating officer in January 2018.

On December 9, 2014, Twitch announced it had acquired Guidance Agency, an organization that owns the esports teams Evil Geniuses and Alliance. In March 2015, Twitch reset all user passwords and disabled all connections to external Twitter and YouTube accounts after the service reported that someone had gained “unauthorized access” to the user information of some Twitch users.

In June 2016, Twitch added a new feature known as “Cheering”, a special form of emoticon purchased as a micro transaction using an in-site currency known as “Bits”. Bits are bought using Amazon Payments, and cheers act as donations to the channel.

Users also earn badges within a channel based on how much they have cheered. On August 16, 2016, Twitch acquired Curse, Inc., an operator of online video gaming communities and gaming-oriented VoIP software.

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In December 2016, Guidance Agency was divested by Amazon to their respective members due to conflict of interest concerns. On September 30, 2016, Twitch announced Twitch Prime, a service which provides premium features that are exclusive to users who have an active Amazon Prime subscription.

This included advertising-free streaming, monthly offers of free add-on content (“Game Loot”), and game discounts. Games included with the game loot rewards were Apex Legends, Legends of Runeterra, FIFA Ultimate Team, Team fight Tactics, Mobile Legends: Bang Bang, Doom Eternal, and more.

In December 2016, Twitch announced a semi-automated chat moderation tool (AutoCAD), which uses natural language processing and machine learning to set aside potentially unwanted content for human review. In February 2017, Twitch announced the Twitch Game Store, a digital distribution platform that would expose digital purchases of games within the site's browsing interface.

Twitch and Blizzard Entertainment signed a two-year deal in June 2017 to make Twitch be the exclusive streaming broadcaster of select Blizzard esports championship events, with viewers under Twitch Prime earning special rewards in various Blizzard games. Twitch also reached a deal in 2018 to be the streaming partner of the Overwatch League, with the site also offering an “All-Access Pass” with exclusive content, emotes, and in-game items for Overwatch.

In August 2017, Twitch announced it had acquired video indexing platform Clipping. On August 20, 2018, Twitch announced that it will no longer offer advertising-free access to the entire service to Amazon Prime subscribers, with this privilege requiring the separate Twitch Turbo” subscription or an individual channel subscription.

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This privilege ended for new customers effective September 14, 2018, and for existing customers October 2018. In October 2018, Twitch announced Amazon Blacksmith, a new extension allowing broadcasters to configure displays of products associated with their streams with Amazon affiliate links.

On November 27, 2018, Twitch discontinued the Game Store service, citing that it did not generate as much additional revenue for partners as they hoped, and new revenue opportunities such as Amazon Blacksmith. Users retain access to their purchased games.

Twitch acquired the Internet Games Database (GDB), a user-driven website similar in functionality to Internet Movie Database (IMDb) to catalog details of video games in September 2019. Twitch plans to use the database service to improve its own internal search features and help users find games they are interested in.

On September 26, 2019, Twitch unveiled a new logo and updated site design. The design is accompanied by a new advertising campaign, “You're already one of us”, which will seek to promote the platform's community members.

Twitch began signing exclusivity deals with high-profile streamers in December 2019, starting with Drupe, TimTheTatman, and Limit, who had a combined 10.36 million followers at the time. Dr Disrespect signed a multi-year deal in March 2020.

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On June 26, 2021, Dr Disrespect was banned from Twitch for unexplained reasons and his channel was removed from the site. Twitch introduced a Safety Advisory Council in May 2020, made up from streamers, academics, and think tanks, with a goal to develop guidelines for moderation, work-life balance, and safeguarding the interests of marginalized communities for the platform.

That same month, Twitch signed popular streamers Summit1g, Dakota and Josh OG to multi-year exclusive deals. In August 2020, Twitch Prime was renamed Prime Gaming, aligning it closer with the Amazon Prime family of services.

Twitch is designed to be a platform for content, including esports tournaments, personal streams of individual players, and gaming-related talk shows. A number of channels do live speed running.

The Twitch homepage currently displays games based on viewership. The typical viewer is male and aged between 18 and 34 years of age, although the site has also made attempts at pursuing other demographics, including women.

As of June 2018 some of the most popular games streamed on Twitch are Fortnite, League of Legends, Data 2, PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds, Hearthstone, Overwatch and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive with a combined total of over 356 million hours watched. Streamer Ninja had been among Twitch's top personalities, with over 14 million followers.

In August 2019, however, Ninja announced that he would move exclusively to a Microsoft-owned competitor, Mixer. Following the discontinuation of Mixer in late-July 2020, both Ninja, and Shroud (who had also defected to the service) re-signed exclusively with Twitch.

On October 28, 2015, Twitch launched a second non-gaming category, “Creative”, which is intended for streams showcasing the creation of artistic and creative works. To promote the launch, the service also streamed an eight-day marathon of Bob Ross The Joy of Painting.

In July 2016, Twitch launched “Social eating” as a beta; it was inspired by the Korean phenomenon of Mustang and Korean players having engaged in the practice as intermissions on their gaming streams. In March 2017, Twitch added an “IRL” category, which is designed for content within Twitch guidelines that does not fall within any of the other established categories on the site (such as life logs).

Broadcasters on Twitch often host streams promoting and raising money towards charity. By 2013, the website has hosted events which, in total, raised over US$8 million in donations for charitable causes, such as Extra Life 2013.

As of 2017, Twitch has raised over US$75 million in donations for charitable causes. On September 5, 2019, the National Women's Hockey League announced a three-year broadcast rights deal with Twitch, covering all games and league events.

The deal also contained an agreement with the NHL Players' Association for revenue sharing with players, and marked the first time that the NHL had ever received a rights fee. The National Women's Soccer League announced a three-year deal in March 2020 for Twitch to stream 24 matches per-season in the United States and Canada, collaborate on original content, and serve as the rights holder for all matches outside the United States and Canada.

On June 20, 2021, as an extension of Prime Video's local rights to the league, a plan to air all the remaining matches of the 2019–20 season (for the resumption of play due to the COVID-19 pandemic and matches being played behind closed doors), and a plan for some of these matches to be carried free-to-air, it was announced that Twitch would stream a package of four Premier League soccer matches within the United Kingdom. On July 16, 2021, U.S. radio broadcaster Intercom announced a partnership to stream video simulcasts of programs from some of their major-market sports talk stations on Twitch channels.

On July 22, 2021, Twitch officially launched a Sports category, primarily playing host to content streamed by sports leagues and teams on the platform. Twitch features many emoticons called “emotes”.

There are emotes free for all users, emotes for Turbo users, emotes for Twitch Prime users, and emotes for users who are subscribed to Twitch partners or affiliates. As of October 2015, Kappa was the most used emote on Twitch.

Twitch partnered broadcasters unlock more “emote slots” as they gain more subscribers up to a maximum of 50 emotes per channel. On January 6, 2021, Twitch announced that they had removed the Champ emote, the third most-used emote on the platform in 2018, typically used to express excitement, joy or shock.

The decision was made in response to comments from the streamer Ryan “Guides” Gutierrez, the face of the emote, supporting civil unrest during the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol. Twitch plans to ask the community for a suitable replacement for the emoticon.

Twitch later announced that there would be a new Champ emote every 24 hours. On August 6, 2014, Twitch announced that all on-demand videos on Twitch became subject to acoustic fingerprinting using software provided by content protection company Audible Magic ; if copyrighted music (particularly, songs played by users from outside the game they are playing) is detected, the 30-minute portion of the video which contains the music will be muted.

Live broadcasts were not subject to these filters. A system was available for those who believed they were inappropriately affected and had rights to the music they used to challenge the filtering.

Twitch offered a selection of royalty-free music for streamers to use, which was expanded upon later in January 2015. The audio filtering system, along with the lack of communication surrounding the changes in general, proved to be controversial among users.

In a Reddit AMA, co-founder Emmett Shear admitted that his staff had “screwed up” and should have provided advance warning of the changes, and promised that Twitch had “absolutely no intention” of implementing audio filtering on live broadcasts. In June 2020, Twitch received a large wave of DMCA takedown notices aimed at year-old Gods and “clips” (short segments of streams that can be captured by users) that contain copyrighted music from 2017 to 2019.

Twitch complied with the takedowns and also issued a number of copyright strikes against viewers. Concerned streamers were notified that they should remove all Gods and clips if not certain they did not contain copyrighted material.

This provoked major backlash, both at the loss of prior content but also based on viability concerns due to an inability to review or even rapidly delete content. There were also complaints based that strikes were being issued on viewer-created clips, even where the streamer-created content was deleted.

On September 15, 2021, Twitch signed a licensing agreement with the French performance society SACEM, allowing composers and publishers to collect royalties whenever their music is streamed in France. Twitch already had licensing deals with the American societies ASCAP, BMI, SEAC and Global Music Rights.

To address these issues and also build upon the growth of music-based content on Twitch, Twitch introduced an extension known as “Soundtrack” in September 2020, which plays rights-cleared music with curated genre-based playlists. It is contained within a separate stream that is not recorded with the Gods, and had agreements with 24 music distributors and independent record labels at launch.

Twitch has also explicitly banned specific games from streaming, regardless of rating; this includes games such as BMX XXX, erogevisual novel games (such as Dramatic Murder), HuniePop, Rinse and Repeat, Second Life, and Ryanair Simulator. The banning of Ryanair Simulator was criticized by Wandered, the developer of the game.

He believed that the game was being arbitrarily singled out with no explanation, as Twitch has not banned other games with similarly excessive sexual or violent content such as Mortal Kombat X, Grand Theft Auto, or The Witcher 3. Twitch took temporary action in May 2019 after channels related to the video game Artifact began to be used for inappropriate content.

Artifact, a major game by Valve, had lost most of its audience in just months from its release, and by late May 2019, several popular live streamers commented that the total viewership for Artifact streams had dropped to near zero. In the days that followed, several streams started to make streams purporting to be Artifact gameplay but was trolling or other off-topic content.

Initially these new streams were playing with the viewers or were jokes, such as showing animal videos or League of Legends matches. After a few days, other Artifact channel streams appeared containing content that was against the terms of Twitch's use policy, including full copyrighted movies, pornography, Nazi propaganda, and at least one stream that showed the entirety of the shooter's video from the Christchurch mosque shootings.

The titles of such streams were usually presented to imply they were showing other content while waiting in queue for Artifact matches as to appear legitimate. As word of these streams in the Artifact section grew, Twitch took action, deleting the account that streamed the Christchurch shooting.

Twitch then took steps to temporarily ban new accounts from streaming until they can resolve the issue. By June 2019, Twitch started taking legal actions against one hundred “John Doe” streamers in a California court, accusing them of trademark infringement, breach of contract, fraud, and unlawful use of the service that was harming and scaring away users of the service.

In February 2018, Twitch updated its acceptable content policies to deem that any channel directing hate speech or harassment to be suspended from its platform. Also in June 2020, a number of women stepped forward with accusations towards several streamers on Twitch and other services related to sexual misconduct and harassment claims.

Twitch stated it would review all reported incidents and comply with law enforcement in any investigative efforts. However, several popular streamers on Twitch's service believed that the platform could do more to evaluate the accused individuals, prevent incidents, and protect others in the future, and used June 24, 2021 as a Twitch blackout day, not streaming any content through Twitch to show their support.

By the evening of June 24, 2021, Twitch had placed several bans on the accounts of those accused after completing their investigation, and stated in a blog post they would be forwarding additional details to law enforcement. Twitch had temporarily suspended an account belonging to President Donald Trump's campaign on June 29, 2021.

Twitch stated that “hateful conduct is not allowed” as the reason for the suspension. Twitch announced a new policy towards harassment and hateful content in December 2020 that would take effect on January 22, 2021, aimed to better protect marginalized users of the service.

While the new policy is more strict, Twitch said that this also includes a larger sliding scale of remedies or punishments to better deal with edge cases, such as temporarily blocking one's channel for a short time rather than a full ban. The new rules include a ban on ‘racist emotes’, though the list of such emotes is not clarified yet, and imagery containing the Confederate Flag.

The new policy including banning words that were seen as sexual insults such as Intel and virgin when used for harassment. While its slang origins have defined “Sims” derogatorily as “a man who invests a lot of time and energy into women who don't want him”, the term had become common on Twitch to use as a simple non-demeaning insult related to men being nice to women on the service or simply to refer to a person to undying loyalty to another, and its ban raised criticism by streamers and long time viewers.

Twitch, in response, clarified that penalties for using these terms would only be enforced if they were being used in harassment of other users. As of September 20, 2018, the Twitch website is blocked and the app is blocked from the Apple App Store in China.

In July 2011, Twitch launched its Partner Program, which reached over 11,000 members by August 2015. Similar to the Partner Program of other video sites like YouTube, the Partner Program allows popular content producers to share in the advertisement revenue generated from their streams.

Additionally, Twitch users can subscribe to partnered streamers' channels for US$4.99 a month, often granting the user access to unique emoticons, live chat privileges, and other various perks. Twitch retains US$2.49 of every US$4.99 channel subscription, with the remaining US$2.50 going directly to the partnered streamer.

Although exceptions were made, Twitch previously required that prospective partners have an “average concurrent viewership of 500+”, as well as a consistent streaming schedule of at least three days a week. However, since the launch of the 'Achievements' feature, there is a clearer “Path to Partnership” with trackable goals for concurrent viewership, duration and frequency of streams.

In April 2017, Twitch launched its “Affiliate Program” that allows smaller channels to generate revenue as well, also announcing that it would allow channels access to multi-priced subscription tiers. The participants of this program get some but not all the benefits of the Twitch Partners.

Streamers can make profit from cheering with Bits which are purchasable from Twitch directly. Affiliates are also able to access the Twitch Subscriptions feature, with all the same functionality that Partners have access to, with a maximum of five subscriber emotes.

In September 2019, the service announced that Affiliates would now receive a share of ad revenue. Advertising on the site has been handled by a number of partners.

In 2011, Twitch had an exclusive deal with Future US. On April 17, 2012, Twitch announced a deal to give CBS Interactive the rights to exclusively sell advertising, promotions and sponsorships for the community.

On June 5, 2013, Twitch announced the formation of the Twitch Media Group, a new in-house advertisement sales team which has taken over CBS Interactive's role of selling advertisements. For users who do not have ad-free access to a channel or Twitch Turbo, pre-roll advertising, and mid-roll commercial breaks that are manually triggered by the streamer, are displayed on streams.

In September 2020, Twitch announced that it would test automated mid-roll advertising on streams, which cannot be controlled by the streamer. The Twitch Desktop App replaced the Curse Client and Curse Launcher in 2017.

It includes a dedicated browser for the Twitch website and additional functions inherited from the Curse software, such as mod installation and management for supported games via the Reforge service, and voice chat. The software also serves as the client for the former Twitch Game Store.

In June 2020, Reforge was sold to Over wolf, for an undisclosed sum. The current mod management in the Twitch client will be moved to a dedicated, though not standalone, Reforge client.

Twitch is a biannual fan convention devoted to Twitch and the culture of video game streaming. The inaugural event was held at the Mo scone Center in San Francisco from September 25–26, 2015.

Since its inception Twitch has been an annual event. The second Twitch was held in San Diego at the San Diego Convention Center from September 30 – October 2, 2016.

The third annual Twitch was held in Long Beach at the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center from October 20–22, 2017. The fourth annual Twitch was held at the San Jose Scenery Convention Center in San Jose, California, from October 26–28, 2018.

In 2019, Twitch con expanded overseas and hosted their first ever European event in Berlin in April 2019, alongside a North American event later in November 2019 in San Diego. Twitch had planned to host an event in Amsterdam in May 2020, but this was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Another Twitch event was planned in San Diego in September 2020, but was also cancelled due to COVID-19. Twitch is often used for video game tutorials; the nature of Twitch allows mass numbers of learners to interact with each human other and the instructor in real time.

Twitch is also used for software development learning, with communities of users streaming programming projects and talking through their work. Amazon Buys Twitch For $US970 Million In Cash”.

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^ Twitch Adds Micro transactions to Cheer in Chat”. “Evil Geniuses and Alliance become player-owned organizations”.

^ Twitch introduces a new automated moderation tool to make chat friendlier”. Twitch will start selling games and giving its streamers a cut”.

Twitch Commerce will sell games and DLC from streamer pages with 5% going to broadcasters”. Twitch will sell video games on its site starting this spring”.

Twitch and Blizzard Announce Two-Year Worldwide Collaboration”. “Overwatch League All-Access Pass Includes Twitch Emotes, in-Game Skins, and More for $30”.

^ “At The Last Minute, Blizzard Strikes Overwatch League Deal With Twitch ". Twitch acquired video indexing platform Clipping to power new discovery features”.

^ Twitch Prime members will lose ad-free viewing next month”. ^ Twitch announces group streaming and a karaoke game for its 1M concurrent viewers”.

^ Twitch Game Store is Shutting Down After November 27”. Twitch acquires GDB to bolster search and discoverability capabilities”.

“Eight years after its launch, Twitch is getting a slightly new look”. Twitch just locked down top streamers Drupe, TimTheTatman, and Limit”.

Twitch's New 'Safety Advisory Council' To Focus On Work-Life Balance, Protecting Marginalized Groups”. “Summit1G, Dakota And Josh OG Have Signed New Contracts With Twitch ".

Twitch signs multiyear deals with popular streamers Summit1G, Dakota, and Josh OG”. Twitch .TV Releases iPhone App, Feeds Your Addiction”.

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^ Twitch tries out live concerts with free house music performance tonight”. ^ “DJ Steve Loki to star in Twitch's first live concert tonight”.

Twitch starts streaming live music today”. ^ Twitch adds a music section, free tracks to make up for copyright crackdown”.

“The Ultra Music Festival will be broadcast live on Twitch ". Twitch launches “Creative” category, eight-day Bob Ross Painting marathon”.

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“Impact's weekly program will be simulcast on Twitch as it airs on the Pursuit channel”. “NHL signs three-year streaming deal with Twitch, receives broadcasting rights fee”.

Amazon continues push into sports with National Women's Soccer League on Twitch ". ^ “NW SL Inks Multi-Year Deal With CBS Sports, Twitch ".

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Twitch Inks Deal to Livestream Intercom's Sports Radio Talk Shows as Video Simulcasts (EXCLUSIVE)”. Twitch launches a new sports category as Amazon pushes for sports dominance”.

“Kappa dethroned on Twitch after six years on top”. Twitch deletes Champ emote because it's now the face of 'further violence “.

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University of California, Irvine : Association for Computing Machinery: 858–871. For instance, a string of Champ messages indicated amazement at an impressive play or situation, ^ Davis, Paul K.; O'Mahoney, Angela; PFAT, Jonathan (April 9, 2019).

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Twitch deletes Champ emote because it's now the face of 'further violence “. Twitch Removes 'Champ' Emote Following Tweets by Guides”.

Twitch Mimics YouTube, Begins Automatically Muting Videos With Copyrighted Audio”. Twitch Will Mute Copyrighted Music in On-Demand Videos”.

Twitch CEO apologizes for how new policies rolled out, says improvements are coming”. “Under Fire, Twitch CEO Says “We Screwed Up” Policy Announcement”.


But the Music Industry Says It's Skirting the Rules”. ^ Twitch, still unlicensed by majors, launches rights-cleared music via deals with indie distributors and labels”.

Twitch's Soundtrack feature debuts today, and it will let streamers play music while they're live”. “In Twitch's fight with the music industry, streamers are paying the price”.

Twitch, Amazon Slammed by RIAA and Major Industry Groups for Using Unlicensed Music; Twitch Disputes Claim”. Twitch pulls the plug on CS:GO gambling broadcasts”.

“Shower simulator Rinse and Repeat makes the Twitch shortlist for banned games”. “Ryanair Simulator Dev Says Twitch Hasn't Told Him Why His Game Was Banned”.

Twitch's Artifact section has become a waking nightmare”. Twitch is temporarily suspending new creators from streaming after troll attack”.

Twitch Sues Troll Streamers Over Violent Videos, Pornography”. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019.

Twitch Lawsuit Blames Artifact Porn Streams for Permanently Pushing Users Off the Platform”. Twitch updates policies on hate speech, harassment and sexual content”.

“Video game streaming platforms investigating allegations of sexual harassment”. “Amid Twitch Blackout, Calls Grow for Game Industry Culture Change”.

Twitch overhauls its rules around harassment and hateful conduct”. Twitch won't let you call people 'Sims' anymore”.

Twitch outlaws 'Sims' and 'Intel' as sexually disparaging insults”. “Streamers Flabbergasted After Twitch Partially Bans The Word 'Sims “.

Twitch's new subscription model will let fans pay streamers significantly more money”. ^ “Details on joining the Affiliate program”.

^ “Twitch Day 1: All the News from the Opening Ceremony”. “Star Craft II Pro Gamer Steven “Destiny” Donnell Explains How Twitch TV Is Changing the Game”.


^ “Twitch TV Launches iPad and Android Apps; Expands Mobile Market Presence for Live Video Game Streaming Movement” (Press release). Twitch TV App Launches on Xbox 360”.

Twitch on PlayStation 4 Makes Brilliant Innovations”. “Sony confirms Disney Plus, Netflix, and Twitch will be on the PS5 at launch”.

Twitch blazing a path to livestreaming ubiquity with its updated SDK (interview)”. ^ Twitch to relaunch Curse, acquired last year, as the more social Twitch Desktop App”.

“In-game app-development platform Over wolf acquires Reforge assets from Twitch to get into mods”. “Twitch 2016 announced, coming to San Diego this September”.

“Twitch 2019 Returns To San Diego Convention Center With Fifth Annual Event”. Twitch Cancels Twitch Amsterdam Event Amid Coronavirus Concerns”.

^ a b Payne, Katherine; Keith, Mark J.; Schuyler, Ryan M.; Girona, Justin Scott (December 2017). “Examining the learning effects to live-streaming video game instruction over Twitch ".

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