The Detroit Post
Monday, 18 October, 2021

Bitlife Where Is Surrogacy Legal

author
Danielle Fletcher
• Thursday, 31 December, 2020
• 25 min read

There was a time when Asian countries like India and Thailand were a hub for international surrogacy, but not anymore. During this time, international surrogacy means going to India or Thailand, as these two nations were offering affordable quality medical services with a considerable number of young and healthy surrogates.

surrogacy legal greece
(Source: babygest.com)

Contents

Adequate legal protection for intended parents and the cheapest surrogacy cost was the main reason for their popularity. Nevertheless, a few adverse media reports and irregular malpractices make it quite visible for the government to ban surrogacy services for foreigners in these countries.

The other alternative surrogacy destination like Nepal and Cambodia came into existence, but could not last more than a year or two. There was a time when most of the Indian IVF Clinics put their attention toward Nepal so that they can continue their operation in the nearby small country.

As soon as surrogacy in Nepal was getting popular, the local Government stopped it, owing to international pressure and no experience of this new concept. New IVF Clinics opened with the hope of offering surrogacy to international couples.

The Indian government banned foreign surrogacy in Oct 2015. It was offering an affordable yet legal surrogacy to numerous USA couples.

But again, it is too complicated to pursue, as the cost is going higher and no legal security. Most of the intended parents are gay couples or single male from nearby Asian countries like China and Singapore who wishes to have a baby of their own with the help of a gestational carrier.

surrogacy map america across source daddies issue road nerdwallet surrogate hinson diane mcbrien maureen
(Source: www.nerdwallet.com)

The desire to have a baby is so strong and inbuilt that they are ready to take the risk in unregulated surrogacy countries if they do not have many financial resources. Sometimes there is a positive trend, like just a few days back, we see that the UK allows the single parent to apply for a parental order for the baby born through surrogacy.

Few IVF Clinics in Mexico are offering surrogacy services. Again, this country has banned foreign surrogacy arrangements and so it is not lawfully protected for surrogate mother and intended parents.

Do they need to hire a local lawyer to take the baby home and to what extent the surrogacy agency can help them? About the prior experience and reference of their country’s successful intended parents.

Foreign nationals allowed engaging with a prior court order. GEORGIA- Compensated or commercial surrogacy is only allowed for heterosexual couples, including foreigners.

Ukraine- Compensated or commercial surrogacy is only allowed for heterosexual couples, including foreigners. ISRAEL- Only altruistic surrogacy available for heterosexual couples, Israeli citizens.

surrogate mother cost costs mothers compare surrogacy
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

KENYA- Compensated surrogacy available to locals and foreigners but not legally protected. Advertising for surrogates, not legal foreigners cannot access surrogacy in the UK.

The idea of creating a new life in some unknown country can be scary. It is so painful to see that such noble souls who want to have a baby are cheated and given misleading information.

I have personally seen numerous cases of single parents, who almost argue that they can do egg donor surrogacy in Georgia or Ukraine. They have been misled by shady IVF Clinics or surrogacy agencies.

Such malpractice affects the overall environment and is a severe threat to the parents who wish to do surrogacy lawfully in the future. We can promise to give you the most updated and accurate information and save you time and money.

It is a long and complicated way of having a baby via surrogacy process, where a prospective Intended Parents chose to do their surrogacy program in some other country– other than their home country. This is mainly due to avid high surrogacy costs in their country (like the USA) or not having a favorable legal framework in their country (like China).

A female citizen could be a surrogate for a person or couple and could get a good stack of money for it, this even has options in itself (don't want to make it took excessively complicated tho) On one end, a female citizen could go through official means to be a surrogate, like an agency, could be contacted by a couple and then could negotiate a higher price.

Whether you’re an iOS or Android user, this game allows you to create your own virtual person and have them live their best (or worst) life while making good or bad decisions along the way, and previous updates have added tons of features that offer more options for Citizens, whether they may be trying to keep their grades up and take part in activities in school, dealing with politics and rumors in the workplace, or interacting with romantic partners or starting families. Although Candy writer had released a “Pride Update” quite a while back, this new update actually homes in on the game’s LGBTQ-centric features, adding a range of options that better reflect how things are in the real world for people who don’t identify as straight or heterosexual or don’t fully identify with their gender at birth.

These same-sex parents can likewise get divorced and meet new partners of the same sex, thus putting them on the same level as the male/female couples. Tapping on this tab will pull up a list of six men or women (depending on your gender) who will be available to donate their sperm or eggs, thus allowing you to have kids as a same-sex couple, or even if your partner is sterile.

You’ll really have to roll the dice and hope for someone who’s actually loaded if you’re trying to get the Gold Digger ribbon, in that case. And just as it is in the OG dating app, choosing No, Try Again will pull up another match result and set you back by another hundred bucks.

As seen in the change log, the game promises “better support for same sex parents in generational lives.” We’ve yet to see in great detail how this works throughout the course of a game (either through actual gameplay or on the Billie Subreddit), but as we mentioned above, same-sex couples can encounter the same challenges and have the same rights that male/female couples do, which is pretty good to see. Candy writer suggested in the What’s New section on the App Store that Billie is now “more inclusive than ever,” adding a promise to fix any misused pronouns.

As Smith had previously come out as gender queer, they no longer go by masculine pronouns, but that wasn’t the case with the Social Media Update, where players would see messages like “he ignored you” after interacting with the singer’s virtual version in Billie. During our course of experimentation with the new features, we discovered that after marrying a partner we met via the gay dating app, adopting a child or conceiving one via surrogate, dying for one reason or another (in here, we killed them off via Witch Doctor), and having our child take over as a second-generation Citizen, an interesting bug comes up.

Does it make a difference whether the surrogate mother is paid (commercial) or simply reimbursed for expenses (altruistic)? Of the countries which allow surrogacy, many have residency or citizenship requirements for the intended parent(s) and/or the surrogate.

Countries without such requirements often attract persons from abroad, being destinations for fertility tourism. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada or Australia, laws vary by state/territory.

In New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory it is an offense to enter into international commercial surrogacy arrangements with potential penalties extending to imprisonment for up to one year in Australian Capital Territory, up to two years imprisonment in New South Wales and up to three years imprisonment in Queensland. In 2006, Australian senator Stephen Conroy and his wife Paula Benson announced that they had arranged for a child to be born through egg donation and gestational surrogacy.

Unusually, Conroy was put on the birth certificate as the father of the child. Previously, couples who used to make surrogacy arrangements in Australia had to adopt the child after it was registered as born to the natural mother; rather than being recognized as birth parents, however now that surrogacy is more regular practice for childless parents; most states have switched to such arrangements to give the intended parents proper rights.

After the announcement, Victoria passed the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008, effective since 1 January 2010 to make only altruistic surrogacy legal. In 2017, South Australia passed a bill to allow gay couples equal access to both surrogacy and IVF.

The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (Arc) permits only altruistic surrogacy : surrogate mothers may be reimbursed for approved expenses but payment of any other consideration or fee is illegal. Quebec law, however, renders all surrogacy contracts, whether commercial or altruistic, unenforceable.

Surrogacy is neither forbidden nor expressly permitted by law in the People's Republic of China. The Ministry of Health has established “departmental rules” which prohibit medical professionals from performing surrogacy procedures, with violations punished by fines (but not criminal liabilities).

There are no clear rules in Colombia as of today regarding surrogacy and a loophole persists. This means the child must be registered with the surnames of the surrogate mother and her partner or spouse, if she has any.

In July 2016, a right wing political party, Democratic Center, has introduced for the second time a bill in order to determine the concept of surrogacy and to forbid any types of it. The only mention of the phrase “surrogate motherhood” can be found in § 804 of the law n. 89/2012, where the law designates an exception to the ban of adoption by siblings for siblings carried by a surrogate mother.

Commercial surrogacy arrangements were illegal even before 2007. In France, since 1994, any surrogacy arrangement that is commercial or altruistic, is illegal or unlawful and is not sanctioned by the law (art 16-7 of the Code Civil).

It held that if any couple makes an agreement or arranges with another person that she is to bear the husband's child and surrender it on birth to the couple, and that she is choosing that she will not keep the child, the couple making such an agreement or arrangement is not allowed to adopt the child. In its judgement the court held that such an agreement is illegal on the basis of articles 6, 353 and 1128 of the Code Civil.

The German Free Democratic Party wants to allow altruistic surrogacy. According to the German Civil Code, the legal mother is always the woman who gave birth to the child.

Surrogacy, along with ovum and sperm donation, has been legal in the country of Georgia since 1992. Law 3305/2005 (“Enforcement of Medically Assisted Reproduction”) Surrogacy in Greece is fully legal and is only one of a handful of countries in the world to give legal protection to intended parents.

Intended parents must meet certain qualifications, and will go before a family judge before starting their journey. As long as they meet the qualifications, the court appearance is procedural and will be granted their application.

At present, intended parents must be in a heterosexual partnership or be a single female. Females must be able to prove there is a medical indication they cannot carry and be no older than 50 at the time of the contract.

An added advantage for Europeans is that, due to the Schengen Treaty, they can freely travel home as soon as the baby is born and deal with citizenship issues at that time, as opposed to applying at their own embassy in Greece. 8 of Law 3089/2002), one of the prerequisites for granting the judicial permission for surrogacy was also the fact that the surrogate mother and the commissioning parents should be Greek citizens or permanent residents.

However, the law has recently (in July 2014) changed and the new provisions of L. 4272/2014 foresee now that the surrogacy is allowed to applicants or surrogate mothers who have their permanent or temporary residence in Greece. With this new law Greece becomes the only EU country with a comprehensive framework to regulate, facilitate and enforce surrogacy, as according to the explanatory statement of the art.

17 of the L. 4272/2014: “The possibility is now extending also to applicants or surrogate mothers who have their permanent residence outside Greece”. Commercial surrogacy is criminal under the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance 2000.

The law is phrased in a manner that no one can pay a surrogate, no surrogate can receive money, and no one can arrange a commercial surrogacy (the same applies to the supply of gametes), no matter within or outside Hong Kong. In October 2010, Peter Lee, the eldest son and one of the presumed heirs of billionaire Lee Shaw See obtained three sons through a surrogate mother, reportedly from California.

Since the junior Lee is single, the news attracted criticism on both moral and legal grounds. A vicar general of the territory's Roman Catholic diocese was critical.

In December the case was reportedly referred to police after questions were asked in Lego. Altruistic and commercial surrogacy is legal for Indian citizens.

As of 4 November 2015 commercial surrogacy for foreign intended parents is not legal in India. India was a destination for surrogacy -related fertility tourism because of the relatively low cost.

In the case of Ball v. Union of India the Honorable Supreme Court of India has given the verdict that the citizenship of the child born through this process will have the citizenship of its surrogate mother. Surrogacy was regulated by the Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines, 2005.

In 2005 a Government-appointed Commission published a very comprehensive report on Assisted Human Reproduction, which made many recommendations on the broader area of assisted human reproduction. In relation to surrogacy, it recommended that the commissioning couple would under Irish law be regarded as the parents of the child.

Despite the publication there has been no legislation published and the area essentially remains unregulated. Due to mounting pressure from Irish citizens going abroad to have children through surrogacy, the Minister for Justice, Equality and Defense published guidelines for them on 21 February 2012.

In March 1996, the Israeli government legalized gestational surrogacy under the “Embryo Carrying Agreements Law.” This law made Israel the first country in the world to implement a form of state-controlled surrogacy in which each and every contract must be approved directly by the state.

A state-appointed committee permits surrogacy arrangements to be filed only by Israeli citizens who share the same religion. The numerous restrictions on surrogacy under Israeli law have prompted some intended parents to turn to surrogates outside the country.

In February 2020, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled the restriction on same-sex couples from entering surrogacy agreements as discriminatory, thus giving the state one year to change the law. All surrogacy arrangements (both commercial and altruistic) are legal and popular.

Many couples from the Middle East do surrogacy in Iran due to the legal easiness. Surrogacy is currently prohibited by fatwa issued by National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs in 2008.

Although altruistic surrogacy is legal, there is only one hospital taking in couples and there are extremely strict rules to get in. This makes a lot of couples seek their treatment outside the Netherlands or Belgium.

Gestational surrogacy is currently practiced in Nigeria by a few IVF clinics. The ART regulation that is currently being considered by the Senate permits surrogacy and allows some inducement to be paid for transport and other expenses.

A 2015 news report estimated there are likely dozens of surrogate mothers in Poland. According to Family Code legal mother of child is always the woman who gave birth to them.

Heterosexual and lesbian couples could become parents via surrogacy in Portugal since 2016, under certain conditions. Traditional surrogacy is illegal in Portugal except for some specific situations that give the right for a surrogate mother to be genetic (for example, if the future adoptive mother is completely barren).

A limited gestational surrogacy law proposed by the Left Bloc was approved in Parliament on the 13 May 2016, which went through considerable modifications during the five months that it took to get it from project to law (it was discussed in a work group with representatives from all parliamentary groups). The law received the favorable votes of the Socialist Party (minus two), Left Bloc (BE), The Greens (PEV), People Animals Nature (PAN), and 24 out of 89 members of the Social Democratic Party (PSD, including the former party leader Pedro Passes Coelho).

The communists justified their vote as being in line with the recommendations of the National Ethics Council. President Marcelo Rebel ode Sousa vetoed the law as soon as he received it, giving the same justification as the Communist Party.

The law was once again sent to the Parliament and passed a second time after some changes, on 20 July 2016, with the favorable votes of BE, PS, PEV, PAN and 20 members of PSD. Eight members of PSD abstained, including Pedro Passes Coelho.

On 22 August 2016, gestational surrogacy was legalized in Portugal (Law 25/2016) for the cases in which there is an absence of the uterus or, due to lesions or disease, the uterus is unable to successfully carry a pregnancy to term. In such cases, the surrogate mother must willingly enter the contract and accept to renounce any motherhood rights and duties.

The gestational surrogacy requires a written contract that explicitly deals with the possibility of abortion in certain cases, the Order dos Medicos opinion (which does not need to be positive) and the National Council of Medically Assisted Reproduction's (CN PMA) permission. The only payment/donation that the genetic parents can make in favor of the surrogate mother is her medical expenses and the surrogate mother cannot be economically dependent on the genetic parents.

Single men and homosexual male couples cannot have access to gestational surrogacy. The law does not explicitly exclude single women, but requires that only one of the members of the couple has to contribute with genetic material, which may be interpreted as restricting the procedure to couples.

The law does not restrict gestational surrogacy to residents, meaning that Portugal may become a fertility tourism destination. Representatives of Brazilian and US-based evangelical and Pentecostal churches condemn surrogacy and suggest that infertile couples can/must (depending on the Church) pursue conventional adoption (national or transnational even though the latter is banned by law).

After the 2016 law was approved, a regulatory decree (6/2017) was created in 31 July 2017 to materialize the 2016 law that included, for example, the requirement that the surrogacy mother is accompanied by a psychologist during and after the birth. On February 2017, a petition with more than 4000 signatures (the legal requirement for the Parliament to be forced to discuss the matter of the petition), was submitted to Parliament, asking for a referendum on gestational surrogacy.

At the same time, a group of members of CDS and PSD requested that the law was subject to a constitutional inspection. On April 2018, the Constitutional Court deliberated on the matter and declared that some of the law's articles were in fact unconstitutional.

The effects of the decision did not apply to any processes that had initiated the therapeutic procedure. On July 2019, new changes were made to the 2016 law in Parliament in an attempt to revert the Constitutional Court's decisions, but one of the issues raised by the Court (regarding the right of the surrogate mother to choose to keep the baby) failed to make it to the final version of the law.

On August 2019, president Marcelo Rebel ode Sousa sent the law to the Constitutional Court for review. On September 2019, the 2016 law, after the 2019 changes, was once again considered unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court.

Gestational surrogacy, even commercial, is legal in Russia, being available to practically all adults willing to be parents. There must be one of several medical indications for surrogacy : absence of uterus, deformity of the uterine cavity or cervix, uterine cavity synechia, somatic diseases contraindicating child bearing, or repeated failure of IVF despite high-quality embryos.

The first surrogacy program in Russia was successfully implemented in 1995 at the IVF center of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Institute in St. Petersburg. Public opinion in general is surrogacy -friendly; recent cases of a famous singer and a well-known businesswoman who openly used services of gestational surrogates received positive news coverage.

There is no requirement for the child to be genetically related to at least one of the commissioning parents. Children born to heterosexual couples who are not officially married or single intended parents through gestational surrogacy are registered in accordance to analogy of just (art.

On 5 August 2009 a St. Petersburg court definitely resolved a dispute whether single women could apply for surrogacy and obliged the State Registration Authority to register a 35-year=old single intended mother, Natalia Gorky, as the mother of her surrogate son. On 4 August 2010 a Moscow court ruled that a single man who applied for gestational surrogacy (using donor eggs) could be registered as the only parent of his son, becoming the first man in Russia to defend his right to become a father through court proceedings.

After that, a few more identical decisions concerning single men who became fathers through surrogacy were issued by different courts in Russia, listing men as the only parents of their surrogate children and confirming that prospective single parents, regardless of their sex or sexual orientation, can exercise their right to parenthood through surrogacy in Russia. Liberal legislation makes Russia attractive for “reproductive tourists” looking for techniques not available in their countries.

Foreigners have the same rights for assisted reproduction as Russian citizens. Genetic relation to the child (in case of donation) does not matter.

Religious authorities in Saudi Arabia do not allow the use of surrogate mothers, instead suggesting medical procedures to restore fertility and ability to deliver. On 21 April 2017, the Serbian Assembly started a discussion a legislation on assisted reproductive technology that bans all forms of surrogacy.

The law permits single people and gay couples to be commissioning parents. If there are two, they must both be genetically related to the child unless that is physically impossible due to infertility or sex (as in the case of a same-sex couple).

The surrogate mother must have had at least one pregnancy and viable delivery and have at least one living child. The surrogate mother has the right to unilaterally terminate the pregnancy, but she must consult with and inform the commissioning parents, and if she is terminating for a non-medical reason, may be obliged to refund any medical reimbursements she had received.

Surrogacy is regulated in the “Bundesgesetz Uber die medizinisch unterstützte Fortpflanzung (Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz, Fed) com 18. On 24 August 2014, the Administrative Court of the Canton of St. Gallen granted parent ship to two men of a child born in the USA.

In response to the controversial Baby Gammy incident in 2014, Thailand since 30 July 2015, has banned foreign people travelling to Thailand, to have commercial surrogacy contract arrangement, under the Protection of Children Born from Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act. Only opposite-sex married couples as Thailand residents are allowed to have a commercial surrogacy contract arrangement.

In the past Thailand was a popular destination for couples seeking surrogate mothers. Ukraine is a major international surrogacy destination, given its very liberal laws, as well as the fact that prices are more affordable than in the United States.

In Ukraine the start of the introduction of methods of supporting reproductive medicine was given in the eighties of the preceding century. It was Kharkiv where the extra corporeal fertilization method was for the first time successfully applied in Ukraine, and in 1991 a girl named Katy was born.

Kharkiv was also the first city in the former Soviet Union to realize surrogacy. Ukrainian surrogacy laws are very favorable and fully support the individual's reproductive rights.

You can choose between Gestational Surrogacy, Egg/sperm Donation, special Embryo adoption programs and their combinations. A written informed consent of all parties (intended parents and surrogate) participating in the surrogacy program is mandatory.

Ukrainian legislation allows intended parents to carry on a surrogacy program and their names will be on the birth certificate of the child born as a result of the surrogacy program from the very beginning. The child is considered to be legally “belonging” to the prospective parents from the very moment of conception.

Even if a donation program took place and there is no biological relation between the child and the intended mother, their names will be on the birth certificate (Clause 3 of article 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine). Gestational surrogacy is an option for officially married couples only (a man and a woman) if they are able to prove they cannot carry a baby themselves for medical reasons and at least one parent must have a genetic link to the newborn baby.

Surrogacy in Ukraine is not regulated in law as commercial, it is more close to altruistic, as the so-called “payment” is not performed to the surrogate mother, it is called a compensation and is not under obligation to pay taxes. Commercial surrogacy arrangements are not legal in the United Kingdom.

Whilst it is illegal in the UK to pay more than expenses for a surrogacy, the relationship is recognized under section 30 of the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990. Regardless of contractual or financial consideration for expenses, surrogacy arrangements are not legally enforceable so a surrogate mother maintains the legal right of determination for the child, even if they are genetically unrelated.

Some states have written legislation, while others have developed common law regimes for dealing with surrogacy issues. Surrogacy friendly states tend to enforce both commercial and altruistic surrogacy contracts and facilitate straightforward ways for the intended parents to be recognized as the child's legal parents.

Some relatively surrogacy friendly states only offer support for married heterosexual couples. States generally considered to be surrogacy friendly include California, Illinois, Arkansas, Maryland, Washington D.C., Oregon, and New Hampshire among others.

Both New Jersey and Washington state commercial surrogacy laws became effective from 1/1/2019. For legal purposes, key factors are where the contract is completed, where the surrogate mother resides, and where the birth takes place.

The variations in policy mean that employee surrogacy benefits, which an increasing number of employers offer, can only be enjoyed in certain jurisdictions. In 1989, under then-Governor Bill Clinton, it passed Act 647, which states that in a surrogacy arrangement, the biological father and his wife will be recognized as the child's legal parents from birth, even if his wife is not genetically related to the child (i.e., in a traditional surrogacy arrangement).

On the other hand, it is unclear how or whether same-sex couples could benefit these laws, since the 2008 ballot measure that made it illegal for unmarried, cohabiting individuals to adopt or provide foster care to minors. It permits commercial surrogacy, regularly enforces gestational surrogacy contracts, and makes it possible for all intended parents, regardless of marital status or sexual orientation, to establish their legal parentage prior to the birth and without adoption proceedings (pre-birth orders).

It is a felony to enter into such an agreement, punishable by a fine of up to $50,000 and up to five years in prison. All intended parents, irrespective of marital status, sexual orientation, or a genetic connection to the child, are able to establish their legal parental rights through pre-birth orders placing their names directly on the child's initial birth certificate.

New York law holds that commercial surrogacy contracts contravene public policy and provides for civil penalties for those who participate in or facilitate a commercial surrogacy contract in New York. New York does recognize pre-birth orders from other states, and has provided a post-birth adoption alternative for altruistic surrogate parents via orders of maternal and paternal affiliation.

Kevin Stitt signed into law HB2468, which legalizes and recognizes the validity of both compensated and uncompensated gestational surrogacy agreements. Under the bill, a comprehensive court procedure is created to validate all gestational agreements.

The bill also allows a court to enter pre-birth orders establishing parentage prior to the birth of the child. The bill applies to gestational agreements entered into by single individuals, as well as heterosexual and homosexual couples, who wish to become parents.

The surrogate mother in a traditional surrogacy arrangement decided to keep the resulting child. However, the intended parents were given custody of the child because the courts thought they would provide a better home for the baby than the surrogate mother, who was instead given visitation rights.

Surrogacy for humanitarian purposes has been allowed in Vietnam from 2015 after The amended Family and Marriage Law passed with nearly 60 percent of votes from the National Assembly. Under the new law, surrogacy will only be allowed among married couples, who do not have any common child, after doctors confirm the wife can not give birth even with technical support.

The surrogate must be a relative of either the husband or wife, and have already given birth successfully. A woman is only allowed to be a surrogate once in her life and must produce her husband's approval if she's married.

The embryo must be created by the intended parents' sperm and ovum. CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ Surrogacy Contracts Act 1993”.

^ http://www.senado.gov.co/sala-de-prensa/senadores-noticias/item/23755-radicado-proyecto-de-ley-que-prohibe-alquiler-de-vientres-en-colombia ^ “CENTR Democratic insisted en project Que provide El aquifer DE painters”. ^ Hugh Beale, Arthur Hartman, Han Not, Dennis Gallon, Cases, materials and text on contract law, ius commune casebooks on the Common Law of Europe, Hart Publishing, 2002, pp.

^ German Civil Code ^ Surrogacy law in Georgia Explained”. “India's surrogate mother business raises questions of global ethics”.

^ Fabiola Adjust, Chiara Obese, Semi Alone and Adapt A. Ashore, The 6th Conference of GIE RAF Cote DE Voice, 7–10 February 2017. “Tudor Aquino Que voice sempre quit saber sober contraltos DE Gestapo (mas o legislator Steve med ode responder)”.

^ a b c d “Assembled dispute poetical Que Pete reference à Gestapo DE substituição”. ^ “Lei was barriers DE Alger Ahumada polo Constitutional”.

“Gestapo DE substituição: deputies revelry “enzyme irresponsabilidade ". Marcelo Elvia plea primary viz um diploma para o Tribunal Constitutional”.

^ Paternity Beyond the Grave RT (Russia Today TV) ^ “Pulley I. Posthumous Grandchildren”. ^ Christie, Annabel, “South Africa shows a way to ensure more predictability in surrogacy arrangements,” Bones, 9 January 2012.

Handbook of Gestational Surrogacy : International Clinical Practice and Policy Issues. (In Spanish) Retrieved 18 August 2014 ^ Modigliani, Anna (28 March 2017).

^ Swiss gays recognized as parents of child, local.ch, retrieved 25 August 2014 ^ “New Thai surrogacy law bans foreigners”. “Law banning commercial surrogacy takes effect Thursday”.

“Thailand bans commercial surrogacy for LGBT, singles, foreigners”. “In search of surrogates, foreign couples descend on Ukraine”.

“Coronavirus splits couple from baby born through surrogacy 8,000 miles away”. CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ “Oregon's paid surrogates are choice for same-sex couples around world”.

^ Arkansas Code, Title 9-10-201, retrieved 12-19-2011 ^ Human Rights Campaign, Arkansas Surrogacy Law, retrieved 12-19-2011 ^ Lawrence, Dale Elizabeth, Surrogacy in California: Genetic and Gestational Rights “, Golden Gate University Law Review, Vol. ^ Boar, Tara, Birth Orders in New York “, 11/29/2011 ^ “Bill Information”.

“Implications of the legalization of non-commercial surrogacy for local kinship and motherhood in Vietnamese society”.

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