The Detroit Post
Friday, 26 February, 2021

Angra Do Heroismo Weather

author
Paul Gonzalez
• Wednesday, 28 October, 2020
• 15 min read

1595 Engraving by Jan Huygens van Linschoten, showing the extensive cultivated lands of the Chad Plain and the nucleus of the village of AngraAngrado Heroism as seen in 1671An engraving of Angry showing the Fort of São João Baptiste first references to the settlement of the Azores date to between 1439 and 1449, through the donation of Henry the Navigator the colonization of seven islands in the central and eastern groups of the archipelago. But, the great difficulty in attracting settlers meant that by 22 August 1460, the island was still unpopulated.

angra portugal heroismo azores travel heroismo 123rf
(Source: www.easyvoyage.co.uk)

Contents

The site chosen by the first settlers was a ridge line, which opened, like an amphitheater, onto two small bays, separated by a peninsula, at the head of which stood the extinct volcano of Monte Brazil. One of these coves was deep enough (around 40 m or 130 ft) to provide an anchorage for large vessels, and it had the further advantage of being sheltered from most strong winds, except for those from the south and southeast.

In 1474, Álvaro Martins Home ordered that the river flowing into the cove be diverted into a man made stone-lined channel, running downhill, so that its rushing waters could be harnessed to turn the waterwheel of a mill. At the same time, this allowed the area on either side of the river's course to be rearranged according to a rectilinear street-plan and organized into neighborhoods by function (commercial, residential, etc.

The first houses of Angry were built on the hillside above the cove, the steep streets winding down to the shore. On high ground, away from the sea, a castle/stronghold/fortress was begun; it would eventually be named Caste lo dos Minos (English: Castle of the Mills).

In the same year, it was chosen by Pope Paul III to be the seat of the Diocese of Angry, with ecclesiastical authority over all the islands of the Azores. The commercial port of early Angry played an important role in the Portuguese East Indies trade beginning in the 15th Century.

The bay of Angry was often full of caravels and galleons, a circumstance that contributed to the progress of the city and its people. The Portuguese nobleman Pro Ones do Canto (1480–1556), who was born at Guitars, was the superintendent of fortifications on Terceira.

(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

For his competency in that role, and other services to the Portuguese Crown, he was rewarded with the title mock Hidalgo (knight-gentleman), and the high office of “Purveyor to the Armada of the Islands and the merchant vessels of the East India trade in all the islands of the Azores” (a hereditary title that followed successive members of the Canto family for three hundred years). During the period when Portugal was trading with its Asian, African, and South American colonies, they were responsible for the protection and welfare of the merchant fleet (and the staggering wealth represented by the cargoes in their holds) once the ships approached the last leg of their voyages in the North Atlantic.

Although for a time he was the monarch (minting coin and conferring titles), his government on Terceira was only recognized in the Azores, and from that place of refuge, António conducted a popular resistance movement opposed to the recognition of a foreign king. He was supported by a number of French adventurers under Filippo di Piero Strong, a Florentine exile in the service of France, as well as Portuguese patriots, some of whom came to the Azores to assist him directly.

Battle of Saga Bay The first military action in the Azores occurred about a year after António's crushing defeat at Alcántara. A Spanish fleet of ten warships, commanded by Pedro Valdez, bombarded Angry on 5 July 1581, then began investigating the coast of the island in search of the best landing places.

At dawn on 25 July, the first ships loaded with Spanish troops anchored in Saga Bay, about twelve kilometers east of Angra's harbor in the village of Vila de São Sebastian. A coast watcher, stationed at the cape called Point do Coelho, gave the alarm, but when the first Portuguese forces arrived about one thousand Castilian's had already landed and had started to sack the surrounding villages.

In this phase of the fighting, according to local accounts of the action, a leading role was played by young and pretty Brianna Pereira who, together with other women, attacked the enemy with farm implements when she saw her house destroyed. About midday, when the outcome of the battle was still unsettled, an Augustinian monk named Friar Pedro, who was taking an active part in the struggle, thought of the stratagem of driving cattle against the Spaniards to scatter them.

(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Over a thousand head of cattle were quickly gathered and, by means of shouts and musket shots, driven against the enemy positions. The disconcerted Spaniards fell back and were pursued to the shore, where almost all of them lost their lives in the fighting or drowned while trying to reach their boats.

This unconventional victory, the Battle of Saga Bay, proved that António could count on a good deal of local support. Battle of Point Delgado The next major military action did not take place until the following summer.

Álvaro DE Kazan, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, was sent in 1582, as “Admiral of the Ocean”, to drive the pretender and his supporters from Angry and the Azores. Badly outnumbered, he won the Battle of Point Delgado on 26 July 1582, off the coast of the island of São Miguel, against a loose confederation of Portuguese, French, English, and Dutch privateers.

His supporters were subsequently defeated the following year at the Battle of Terceira, near Angry, on 27 July 1583, which allowed Philip's forces to finally occupy the Azores and complete his unification of the Crowns of Spain and Portugal. Yet, Santa Cruz, the Spanish admiral, who was acclaimed for his victories against the House of Avid and its partisans in the Azores, recognized that England presented a grave threat to Spain's empire, and he became a zealous advocate of war with the English.

A letter he wrote to Philip II from Andrade Heroism, on 9 August 1583, two weeks after the Battle of Terceira, contains the first definite suggestion of the formation of the Spanish Armada. During the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), the original Portuguese fortifications were redesigned by Italian military engineer Giovanni Vincenzo Castle and his assistants, since privateers, such as Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh, had attacked Spanish ships and possessions.

(Source: www.easyvoyage.co.uk)

The fort was taken, and reclaimed for Portugal: a church was constructed within the fortress in honor of Saint John the Baptist (Portuguese : São João Baptista) after 1642. A young Almeida Garret, during the Napoleonic invasions escaped, along with his family to Angry, where they remained until English forces liberated the Iberian Peninsula After a time in London, former Emperor Pedro I of Brazil joined liberal forces in Andrade Heroism, where he made a base for his eventual assault on the continent during the Liberal Passover the years, Terceira (and Angry in particular) has been a popular place for out-of-favor monarchs to cool their heels while events on the Portuguese mainland or elsewhere went on without them.

In 1667, near the end of the Portuguese Restoration War, King Alfonso VI, his chief advisor, Caste lo Mellor, and Caste lo Mellor's Francophile party were overthrown by the king's younger brother, Pedro, Duke of Beja, (who later ruled as Pedro II of Portugal.) Pedro first installed himself as his brother's regent; then, he arranged Alfonso's exile to the island of Terceira in the Azores on the pretense that he was incapable of governing.

In 1818, Almeida Garrett left the island and moved to Cobra to study at the university's law school. The king had a rightful male heir, Emperor Pedro of Brazil, who had successfully rebelled against his father in the 1820s.

The king's younger son Miguel was exiled in Austria, having led a number of failed revolutions of his own against his father's liberal regime. Pedro abdicated the Portuguese throne in favor of his 7-year-old daughter Maria the Gloria, stipulating that she would marry her uncle Miguel when she came of age.

In order to rule jointly with his niece, however, Miguel was obligated to swear an oath to uphold the existing liberal constitution. On 20 September 1836, Charles Darwin, the eminent English naturalist, nearing the end of his second voyage aboard the research vessel, HMS Beagle, arrived at the Azores and anchored at Angry.

azores terceira visiting island
(Source: www.younglovemommy.com)

The next day, Darwin hired a horse and some guides and rode to the center of the island where an active volcanic crater was supposed to exist. The next day, Darwin traveled along the coast road and visited the town of Praia the Vitória on the northeastern end of the island.

Angry and neighboring Praia the Vitória were the sites of an interesting episode of the American Civil War. Unable to break the blockade by US Navy ships of southern (Confederate) ports, and hoping to draw these blockading ships away to counter other perceived threats, the Confederate States of America had commerce raiders built in Britain and France.

The CSS Alabama was commissioned on 24 August 1862 just outside the harbor of Angry, and it left Terceira to begin its career as the most effective commerce raider in naval history. Nicknamed the “Lion of Gaza”, he reigned from 1884 to 28 December 1895, the day he was made prisoner by Joaquim Mourinho de Albuquerque in the fortified village of Chromite.

Because he was already known to the European press, the Portuguese colonial administration decided to condemn him to exile rather than send him to face a firing squad, as would normally be the case. The city of Angry, surrounded by the green landscapes of Monte Brazil and Serra do Moriarty massive shield volcano of Santa Bárbara, the highest peak on the island of Terceira Angry occupies the south coast of Terceira.

Its principal buildings are the SE Cathedral of Andrade Heroism, a military college, an arsenal, and an observatory. The harbor, now of little commercial or strategic importance (but formerly a major commercial and military port), is sheltered on the west and southwest by the promontory of Monte Brazil, but, today, it is less important than the neighboring ports of Point Delgado on the island of São Miguel and Aorta on the island of Facial.

(Source: www.tripadvisor.pt)

It is also significantly tempered by the Gulf Stream and the warm North Atlantic waters surrounding the Azores, with extremely mild winter temperatures for a place so far from the equator. Administratively, the municipality of Andrade Heroism is made up of several civil parishes, that were historically parochial entities administered by the Catholic Church.

After the expulsion of the religious orders from Portugal, the Portuguese administration adapted these territorial units, into secular institutions that became the foundation of local government. In a civil context, a parish (freesia in Portuguese) is simply a subdivision of a municipality (concerto or municipal).

The historic center of Angry, is located along the southern coast, encompassing the medieval city and fortified citadel that forms the volcanic cone of Monte Brazil. It was one of the first Portuguese squares specifically designed as a broad open space, joining two of the old town's main arteries.

Angra's square is a broad and orderly, paved with Portuguese pavement stone (of white limestone and black basalt). The old square (which reached its ultimate form during the late 18th century) reflects this new thinking and approach to urbanism and transport.

After the 19th century (specifically 1879), it served as a central gathering place for concerts by the military band of the 10th Chaser regiment, whose barracks were in the Fort of São João Baptista. Responsible for supporting the caravels and barracks that transited the Atlantic, the medieval post was centered in the manor house and his descendants expanded the group of buildings, including the large chapel, attributed to Pro's great-great-grandson; Manor of the Count of Vila For (Portuguese : Casey do Code de Vila For/Solar do Code de Vila For); Palace of the Bettencourt (Portuguese : Palacios Bettencourt/Biblioteca Public e Aquino Regional de Angra do Heroism), a 17th-century building, originally a private home, that houses the public library and regional archives, that includes a repository of 400,000 books and two million documents; Palace of the Captains-General (Portuguese : Colegio DE Santa Ignacio/Colegio the Company de Jesus/Palacios dos Capitals Generals (SRAM)), located near the Largo Prior do Cato, the 16th century building, is intimately linked to the history : it was originally the Jesuit College of Saint Ignatius and later College of the Society of Jesus, before it was abandoned in 1759.

(Source: www.azorestouch.com)

Following the personal union between Spain and Portugal, following the Dynastic Crisis, the need to protect the transit points of the Azores, resulted in the construction of several posts and redoubts along the coast of the island, among the most important were: The fortress, which includes a primary bulwark and encircled by 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) line of walls with four hundred pieces of artillery, used to protected shipping that returned from the East Indies (laden with gold and silver).

The fortress is dominated by the Church of São João Baptista (Portuguese : Greta de São João Baptista) and parade grounds, completed at the end of the end of the Iberian union, following the restoration of Portuguese sovereignty in 1640. The Caste lo de São Sebastian has been transformed into a charming hotel, one of the forty-odd pounds (inns in historic buildings) of Portugal; this transformation preserves its original historic character, but the plumbing has been modernized, and some non-visible structural elements have been strengthened.

Most of these churches are from the Mannerism and Baroque periods, and they are remarkably grand if we bear in mind the poor quality of the stone to be found on the island. The interior decoration of these churches relied on the use of both traditional carved and gilded woodwork and the rich and exotic woods of Brazil.

Chapel/Hospital of Fossa Senora the Boa Nova (Portuguese : Capella e Hospital Military de Nossa Senora the Boa Nova) Chapel of the Misericórdia of São Sebastian (Portuguese : Capella the Misericórdia de São Sebastian e Casa de Francisco Ferreira Drummond) Church of the Society of Jesus College (Portuguese : Colegio DE Santa Ignacio/Greta do Colegio the Company de Jesus) Convent of the Conceptions (Portuguese : Convent was Concepcionistas) Convent of São Gonçalo (Portuguese : Convent ode São Gonçalo), established in 1542, through the initiative of nobleman Bras Fires do Canto, to shelter the Clarisse sisters, surviving to 1832 when it was the only surviving convent after the expulsion of the religious orders. A scene from the traditional towards à cord, where people and bulls play cat-and-mouse in the streets of parishes of the municipality Terceira, 4 fighting bulls are enclosed in separate wooden crate for several hours and transported to the village where the bullfight will happen, then a long stout rope is secured around his neck.

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